Vitamin B12 recommendations for vegans (many languages)

The following vitamin B12 recommendations for vegans have been translated into many languages - thanks to many kind helpers:

Choose one of the following options (11, 15, 16, 17):
- 2–5 µg twice per day (from fortified foods or a supplement) (3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14)
- 10–200 µg per day from a supplement (1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9)
- 2000–2500 µg per week from a supplement (2, 7, 9, 10, 13)

See the list of languages here:
Afrikaans
Arabic

Basque
Catalan
Croatian 
Chinese
Danish
Dutch
English
Finnish
French
Gujarati
Hebrew
Hindi 
Hungarian
Indonesian
Italian
Japanese
Kannada 
Korean 
Nepali
Norwegian 
Persian
Polish  
Portuguese
Russian
Spanish
Swedish 
Tagalog
Turkish
Ukrainian
Vietnamese

Does this list not include your first/favourite language? Please help us add more! Thank you!



References:
  1. Adams JF, Ross SK, Mervyn L, Boddy K, King P: Absorption of cyanocobalamin, coenzyme B12, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin at different dose levels. Scand J Gastroenterol 6: 249–252 (1971)
  2. Berlin H, Berlin R, Brante G: Oral treatment of pernicious anemia with high doses of vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor. Acta Med Scand 184: 247–258 (1968)
  3. Bor MV, von Castel-Roberts KM, Kauwell GPA, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Maneval DR, Bailey LB, Nexo E: Daily intake of 4 to 7 µg dietary vitamin B-12 is associated with steady concentrations of vitamin B-12-related biomarkers in a healthy young population. Am J Clin Nutr 91: 571–577 (2010)
  4. Carmel R: Cobalamin (Vitamin B12). In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ (eds): Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 482–497 (2006)
  5. Carmel R: Mandatory fortification of the food supply with cobalamin: an idea whose time has not yet come. J Inherit Metab Dis 34: 67–73 (2011)
  6. Deshmukh US, Joglekar CV, Lubree HG, Ramdas LV, Bhat DS, Naik SS, Hardikar PS, Raut DA, Konde TB, Wills AK, Jackson AA, Refsum H, Nanivadekar AS, Fall CH, Yajnik CS: Effect of physiological doses of oral vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine – a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in India. Eur J Clin Nutr 64: 495–502 (2010)
  7. Donaldson MS: Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Ann Nutr Metab 44: 229–234 (2000)
  8. Haddad EH, Berk LS, Kettering, Hubbard RW, Peters WR: Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr 70 (Suppl): 586S–593S (1999)
  9. Heyssel RM, Bozian RC, Darby WJ, Bell MC: Vitamin B12 turnover in man. The assimulation of vitamin B12 from natural foodstuff by man and estimates of minimal daily dietary requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 18: 176–184 (1966)
  10. IOM (Institute of Medicine), Food and Nutrition Board: Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press (1998)
  11. Johnsen JB, Fønnebø V: [Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency]. [Article in Norwegian] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 111: 62–64 (1991) (Abstract)
  12. Luhby AL, Cooperman JM, Donnenfeld AM, Herrero JM, Teller DN, Wenig JB: Observations on transfer of vitamin B12 from mother to fetus and newborn. Am J Dis Child 96: 532–533 (1958)
  13. Norberg B: Turn of tide for oral vitamin B12 treatment. J Intern Med 246: 237–238 (1999)
  14. Norris J: How recommendations were formulated. Last updated: August 2013. http://www.veganhealth.org/b12/formula (9 Nov 2015)
  15. Schüpbach R, Wegmüller R, Berguerand C, Bui M, Herter‑Aeberli I: Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. Eur J Nutr Oct 26. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7 [Epub ahead of print] (2015)
  16. Sobiecki JG, Appleby PN, Bradbury KE, Key TJ: High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study. Nutr Res 36: 464–477 (2016)
  17. Woo KS, Kwok TCY, Celermajer DS: Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health. Nutrients 6: 3259–3273 (2014)