Препоръки за витамин B12 за вегани (Bulgarian)


Изберете една от следните възможности [11, 15, 16, 17, 18]:

  • 2-5 µg два пъти дневно (от обогатени храни или добавка) [3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14]
  • 10-50 µg на ден от хранителна добавка [1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 19, 20]
  • 2000-2500 µg седмично от добавка [2, 7, 9, 10, 13]


  1. Adams JF, Ross SK, Mervyn L, Boddy K, King P: Absorption of cyanocobalamin, coenzyme B12, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin at different dose levels. Scand J Gastroenterol 6: 249–252 (1971)
  2. Berlin H, Berlin R, Brante G: Oral treatment of pernicious anemia with high doses of vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor. Acta Med Scand 184: 247–258 (1968)
  3. Bor MV, von Castel-Roberts KM, Kauwell GPA, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Maneval DR, Bailey LB, Nexo E: Daily intake of 4 to 7 µg dietary vitamin B-12 is associated with steady concentrations of vitamin B-12-related biomarkers in a healthy young population. Am J Clin Nutr 91: 571–577 (2010)
  4. Carmel R: Cobalamin (Vitamin B12). In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ (eds): Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 482–497 (2006)
  5. Carmel R: Mandatory fortification of the food supply with cobalamin: an idea whose time has not yet come. J Inherit Metab Dis 34: 67–73 (2011)
  6. Deshmukh US, Joglekar CV, Lubree HG, Ramdas LV, Bhat DS, Naik SS, Hardikar PS, Raut DA, Konde TB, Wills AK, Jackson AA, Refsum H, Nanivadekar AS, Fall CH, Yajnik CS: Effect of physiological doses of oral vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine – a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in India. Eur J Clin Nutr 64: 495–502 (2010)
  7. Donaldson MS: Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Ann Nutr Metab 44: 229–234 (2000)
  8. Haddad EH, Berk LS, Kettering, Hubbard RW, Peters WR: Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr 70 (Suppl): 586S–593S (1999)
  9. Heyssel RM, Bozian RC, Darby WJ, Bell MC: Vitamin B12 turnover in man. The assimulation of vitamin B12 from natural foodstuff by man and estimates of minimal daily dietary requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 18: 176–184 (1966)
  10. IOM (Institute of Medicine), Food and Nutrition Board: Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press (1998)
  11. Johnsen JB, Fønnebø V: [Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency]. [Article in Norwegian] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 111: 62–64 (1991) (Abstract)
  12. Luhby AL, Cooperman JM, Donnenfeld AM, Herrero JM, Teller DN, Wenig JB: Observations on transfer of vitamin B12 from mother to fetus and newborn. Am J Dis Child 96: 532–533 (1958)
  13. Norberg B: Turn of tide for oral vitamin B12 treatment. J Intern Med 246: 237–238 (1999)
  14. Norris J: Rationale for VeganHealth’s B12 Recommendations (2022) https://veganhealth.org/vitamin-b12/explanation-of-vitamin-b12-recommendations/ (22 July 2023)
  15. Schüpbach R, Wegmüller R, Berguerand C, Bui M, Herter‑Aeberli I: Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. Eur J Nutr Oct 26. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7 [Epub ahead of print] (2015)
  16. Sobiecki JG, Appleby PN, Bradbury KE, Key TJ: High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study. Nutr Res 36: 464–477 (2016)
  17. Woo KS, Kwok TCY, Celermajer DS: Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health. Nutrients 6: 3259–3273 (2014)
  18. Koeder C, Perez-Cueto FJA: Vegan nutrition: a preliminary guide for health professionals. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2022 Aug 12;1-38. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2107997
  19. Agnoli C, Baroni L, Bertini I, Ciappellano S, Fabbri A, Papa M, Pellegrini N, Sbarbati R, Scarino ML, Siani V, Sieri S: Position paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Dec;27(12):1037-1052. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2017.10.020
  20. Niklewicz A, Smith AD, Smith A, Holzer A, Klein A, McCaddon A, Molloy AM, Wolffenbuttel BHR, Nexo E, McNulty H, Refsum H, Gueant J-L, Dib M-J, Ward M, Murphy M, Green R, Ahmadi KR, Hannibal L, Warren MJ, Owen PJ, CluB-12: The importance of vitamin B12 for individuals choosing plant-based diets. Eur J Nutr. 2023 Apr;62(3):1551-1559. doi: 10.1007/s00394-022-03025-4

Bulgarian, български, Цеко Торбов, вегетарианството, веган диета