Ráðleggingar um næringarefni fyrir vegan fullorðna



Eftirfarandi ráðleggingar eru almennar leiðbeiningar um stefnumörkun þína. Þú þarft ekki að fylgja þeim í minnstu smáatriðum.

1) B12 vítamín

Veldu einn af eftirfarandi valkostum [1–4]:
  • 2–5 µg tvisvar á dag (úr styrktum matvælum eða bætiefni) [5–12]
  • 10–50 µg á dag úr viðbót [6,10–15]
  • 2000–2500 µg á viku úr viðbót [7,11,12,16–18]


2) Kalsíum

Neyta að minnsta kosti 600 mg af kalsíum á dag [2,19-28]. Þú getur náð þessu með því að velja að minnsta kosti einn af eftirfarandi valkostum á hverjum degi:
  • 1 glas (~250 ml) af kalsíumbættri plöntumjólk, til dæmis sojamjólk. Á miðanum ætti að koma fram að það innihaldi 120 mg af kalsíum í 100 ml (alveg eins og kúamjólk) [3,23,28–31]. Þetta mun veita um 300 mg af kalsíum.
  • Önnur kalsíumbætt matvæli, til dæmis kalsíumbættur safi, sojajógúrt, rúllaður hafrar eða brauð, sem myndi einnig veita um 300 mg af kalsíum á dag (athugaðu merkimiðann; mismunandi vörur eru fáanlegar í mismunandi löndum) [23, 28,30,32]
  • 1 til 2 bollar af soðnu dökkgrænu laufgrænmeti:
    • pak choi (bok choy)
    • grænkál
    • spergilkál raab
    • sinnepsgrænu
    • spergilkál [23,28,31]
    • túnfífill lauf
    • brenninetlublöð
    • Napa hvítkál (soðið)
    • (Spínat og Chard eru ekki góðar kalsíumgjafar þar sem aðgengi er lítið.)
  • 2 til 3 bollar af hráu Napa káli
  • 1 bolli af tófú gert með kalsíum [23,28–31]
  • kalsíumríkt vatn/steinefnavatn sem ætti að gefa að minnsta kosti 300 mg kalsíum á dag – athugaðu merkimiðann [33,34]
  • ½ bolli þurrkaðar fíkjur + 3 appelsínur [23]
  • [6 nixtamalized korn (maís) tortillur (Ø ~15 cm) (Þessar eru fáanlegar í Mexíkó og nokkrum Mið-Ameríkulöndum eins og Gvatemala, El Salvador, Hondúras, Níkaragva og Kosta Ríka.) [35–42] ]

Opinberar ráðleggingar um mataræði í mörgum löndum eru um 1000 mg af kalsíum á dag [109].


3) D-vítamín

Á Íslandi er líklega best að taka D-vítamín viðbót árið um kring.

Í sumar:

  • 15–30 mínútur af hádegissól á hverjum degi – eða oftar sól sjaldnar. Skugginn þinn ætti ekki að vera mikið lengri en hæð þín. Forðastu sólbruna!
eða
  • viðbót – eins og á veturna. Forðastu ekki sólina alveg.

Á veturna ("D-vítamín vetur"):

  • ~25 µg (~1000 ae) D-vítamín á dag úr viðbót [2,3,23,28,43–50]
„D-vítamín vetur“ er þegar líkaminn þinn getur ekki búið til D-vítamín úr sólskini og það fer eftir því hvar þú býrð á þessari plánetu (breiddargráðu).

"D-vítamín vetur":

  • Milli 35° norður og 35° suður: Enginn „D-vítamín vetur“ - þú getur búið til D-vítamín allt árið um kring úr sólskini á húðinni [51]
  • Milli 35° og 40° norður: desember og janúar
  • Milli 40° og 50° norður: nóvember til febrúar
  • Norðan 50° norður (allt Ísland): október til mars (eða lengur)
  • Milli 35° og 40° suður: júní og júlí
  • Milli 40° og 50° suður: maí til ágúst
  • Suður af 50° suður: apríl til september (eða lengur)


4) Joð

Veldu einn af eftirfarandi valkostum [2,3,45,52–60]:
  • 100–150 µg á dag úr bætiefni
  • þang eins og nori eða wakame, nokkrum sinnum í viku
  • joðað salt (1 teskeið inniheldur 40–240 µg af joði – athugaðu merkimiðann) [61–63]. Forðastu of mikla saltneyslu.

Einnig ætti að forðast óhóflega neyslu joðs.


5) Omega-3 fitusýrur

Veldu einn (eða blöndu af nokkrum) af þessum valkostum (meira eða færri) á hverjum degi [19,30,64–69]. Eftirfarandi ráðleggingar eru fyrir karla - sem neyta yfirleitt fleiri kaloría. Fyrir konur er aðeins minna nóg.
  • ~10 valhnetur (=20 valhnetuhelmingar; ~40 g) [64]
  • 1–2 teskeiðar af hörfræolíu [64]
  • 2 matskeiðar af möluðum hörfræjum [64,70,71]
  • 1–2 matskeiðar af chiafræjum [69,72–74]
  • 1–2 matskeiðar af hampfræolíu [64]
  • ¼ bolli af hampfræjum, eða 1-2 matskeiðar af skurnuðum hampfræjum
  • 2–3 matskeiðar af repjuolíu (canolaolíu) [64]

Valfrjáls meðmæli:

Notaðu helming ofangreindra ráðlegginga - og bættu við vegan EPA/DHA viðbót:
  • 200–300 mg EPA/DHA á tveggja eða þriggja daga fresti (eða á hverjum degi ef þú vilt) [64,67–69,75–77]
Núverandi sönnunargögn benda ekki til þess að meðalvegan myndi virkilega njóta góðs af EPA/DHA fæðubótarefnum. Ávinningur (til dæmis fyrir heila- eða hjartaheilsu) er mögulegur en mjög óviss.


6) Járn

Borðaðu belgjurtir daglega [26,78,79].

Hjá körlum er járnskortur mjög sjaldgæfur. Hjá konum fyrir tíðahvörf er járnskortur tiltölulega algengur (vegna blóðtaps meðan á tíðum stendur).

Viðbótarráðleggingar (sérstaklega fyrir konur fyrir tíðahvörf):

  • Að neyta C-vítamíns á sama tíma og járnríkur matvæli eykur upptöku járns úr plöntuuppsprettum [78,80-83].
  • Að drekka kaffi eða te með máltíðum dregur úr upptöku járns frá plöntuuppsprettum [80-84].
  • Að elda tómatsósu (eða aðrar sósur sem eru örlítið súrar) í potta úr steypujárni auðgar sósuna með járni [83–86].


7) Sink

Borðaðu belgjurtir, heilkorn og hnetur og fræ daglega [2,30,87,88]. Þau eru góð uppspretta sinks.


8) Selen

Veldu (aðeins) annan (ekki báða) af eftirfarandi valkostum [45,89–91]:
  • Borðaðu 1 eða 2 brasilískar hnetur á dag [92–95]. En ekki borða mikið magn af brasilískum hnetum reglulega.
  • Taktu viðbót sem inniheldur 50–60 µg (ekki meira) af seleni á dag [92,95–100, 110].
Athugið að eftirfarandi hefur komið fram um selen í jarðvegi á Íslandi:
"[...] Íslenskur jarðvegur er upprunninn úr eldfjallaefnum á mörgum svæðum og er ríkur af frumefnum eins og járni og seleni. Hins vegar er jarðvegurinn frekar súr og inniheldur áloxíð sem bindur selen. Afleiðingin er sú að lítill styrkur af Selen er almennt að finna í heyi sem er notað sem fóður fyrir kýr og sauðfé hér á landi og selenskortur hefur verið greint frá í íslensku búfé, Vinnsla og eldun matvæla getur dregið enn frekar úr selenstyrk.
[...]
Ísland er lágt selensvæði vegna lélegs framboðs á seleni úr jarðvegi. [...]" [111]

Ef þú býrð í Bandaríkjunum, Kanada eða Venesúela geturðu hunsað þessar ráðleggingar [101–104]. Ef þú býrð í Finnlandi (þar sem selen er bætt við áburð) og þú neytir nóg af ólífrænu korni, geturðu líklega hunsað þessar ráðleggingar líka [53]. Ef þú býrð á einhverjum svæðum í Kína þar sem jarðvegur er mjög ríkur af seleni – ekki nota selenuppbót og EKKI borða brasilískar hnetur. Ef þú býrð á einhverju af svæðum í Kína með mjög lágt selenmagn í jarðvegi, taktu þá selenuppbót (eins og mælt er með hér að ofan) - nema gripið sé til staðbundinna ráðstafana til að styrkja ákveðna matvæli með seleni (og þú borðar þá matvæli).


9) A-vítamín (próvítamín A)

Borðaðu mikið af dökkgrænu laufgrænmeti, appelsínugulum ávöxtum og appelsínugulu grænmeti [3,45,105].

Frábærir beta-karótín (próvítamín A) uppsprettur eru til dæmis: soðnar gulrætur, gulrótarsafi, grasker, appelsínugular sætar kartöflur, dökkgrænt laufgrænmeti, appelsínugulir ávextir eins og mangó, papaya og kaki auk rauðra papriku.


10) Prótein

Prótein er mikilvægt fyrir heilbrigða vöðva og heilbrigð bein.
  • Borðaðu belgjurtir, heilkorn, hnetur og fræ daglega [3,106–108]. Með belgjurtum má nefna sojavörur (tófú, tempeh, sojamjólk, sojamjöl, sojahakk o.s.frv.), alls kyns baunir, linsubaunir og baunir auk jarðhnetna og hnetusmjörs. Pistasíuhnetur, hampfræ, kínóa og amaranth geta einnig bætt viðeigandi magni af próteini við mataræðið.
  • Borðaðu nóg af kaloríum. Flestir veganarnir borða nóg af kaloríum. En ef þú borðar ekki nóg af kaloríum mun líkaminn þinn nota próteinið sem þú borðar sem hitaeiningar (fyrir "orkuframleiðslu"), og þú gætir endað með of lítið prótein og þú gætir tapað vöðvamassa.



Heilbrigður vegan lífsstíll






Heimildir

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