絕對素食主義者的營養建議 (Traditional Chinese)


以下的建議和數量僅做為一般指導。你不必遵守到最小的的細節。

維生素B12
選擇以下之一 (1–4):
- 2-5 µg, 每天兩次(來自強化食品或補充劑) (5–12)
- 每天10-200 µg (來自補充劑) (6, 10–15)
- 每週2000-2500 µg(來自補充劑) (7, 11, 12, 16–18)



每天至少攝入600mg (2, 19–28)
你可以通過每天至少食用以下富含鈣的選項之一來輕鬆完成。
- 1杯鈣強化豆奶 (3, 23, 28–31)
- 其他鈣強化食品 (23, 28, 30, 32)
- 12杯煮熟的,鈣含量高而草酸含量少的綠葉蔬菜。比如:....
- 小白菜
- 羽衣甘藍
- 西蘭花
- 芥菜葉
菠菜和甜菜莙荙菜不是很好的鈣源因為它們含有大量的草酸可以與腸道中的鈣結合。
- 50023大白菜
- 200克豆腐用硫酸鈣製成 (23, 28–31)
- 富含鈣的礦物質水也可以成為良好的鈣源,如果你可以通過它每天攝入超過300mg的鈣的話(看看瓶上的標註) (33, 34)
- 6幹無花果100克或½+ 3個橙子 (23)


維生素D
夏天
- 每天〜15-30分鐘的日曬
你的影子不應該比你長。
避免曬傷。
- 補充劑如在冬季
不要完全避免陽光。

在冬季維生素D冬季
- 每天約25μg1000IU維生素D補充劑維生素D2或素食維生素D3(2, 3, 23, 28, 43–50)

維生素D冬季是人體不能通過日光照射產生維生素D的季節。維生素D冬季的持續時間取決於到赤道的距離緯度

維生素D冬天” :
- 中國南方高達北緯35°
沒有維生素D冬天
在這裡身體可以在一年中通過足夠的皮膚日曬合成維生素D (51)
- 北緯35°40°十二月和一月
- 北緯40°50°十一月至二月
- 北緯50°以北十月至三月或更長




選擇以下選項之一 (2, 3, 45, 52–60)
- 每天100-200微克(補充劑)
- 像紫菜或裙帶菜一樣的海藻,少量,每週兩到三次
- 加碘鹽(1茶匙含有40-240微克碘 - 取決於國家和品牌,見包裝) (61–63)
高鹽攝入會增加許多人的血壓 - 所以補充劑更有益於許多人。

應避免過量碘攝入!


ω-3脂肪酸
以下建議適用於男性 - 通常會攝入更多的卡路里。對於女性略少量即可。

每日選擇以下選項(或混合)之一 (19, 30, 64–69)
- 2–3 湯匙油菜籽油 (64)
- 10核桃(〜40g(64)
- 1–2 湯匙奇亞籽 (69, 72–74)

可選:
將上述量減半並使用素食主義者DHA補充劑(DHA:十二碳六烯酸):
- 23天(或每天)200-300mg DHA (64, 67–69, 75–77)




非常好的來源:豆類 (26, 78, 79)

其他建議(特別是月經期女性):
- 與富含鐵的食物同時攝入維生素C可改善植物來源的鐵吸收 (78, 80–83)
- 在用餐時喝咖啡或茶會減少鐵的吸收 (80–84)
- 在鑄鐵鍋中加入番茄醬(或其他微酸味醬)可增加醬汁中的鐵含量 (83–86)


非常好的來源:豆類,堅果和種子 (2, 30, 87, 88)




硒(可選)
選擇(僅)以下選項之一 (45, 89–91)
- 每天通過補充劑攝入50-60微克硒(硒代蛋氨酸) (92, 95–100)
- 每天1-2粒巴西堅果 (92–95)

應避免攝入過量的硒!
在中國,有些地區的土壤含有極少量的硒。如果你住在那裡你應該服用硒補充劑見上文
在中國也有土壤含有極多硒的地區。如果你住在那裡你不應該服用硒補充劑 (109)

(109)


維生素A(維生素原A)
非常好的來源
- 深綠色的多葉蔬菜
- 橙色蔬菜特別煮熟的胡蘿蔔胡蘿蔔汁南瓜或橙色紅薯
- 橙色水果芒果木瓜杏和紅辣椒 (3, 45, 105)




蛋白質
非常好的來源豆類全穀物製品堅果和種子。豆類食品豆乳豆腐豆類豌豆鷹嘴豆花生醬等應每日食用。
此外,獲得足夠的卡路里(脂肪,碳水化合物和蛋白質提供卡路里)。如果你攝入的卡路里太少你的身體會使用你攝入的蛋白質作為卡路里。這可能會導致蛋白質缺乏這反過來可能會導致你失去肌肉量。








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