绝对素食主义者的营养建议 (Simplified Chinese)

以下的建议和数量仅做为一般指导。你不必遵守到最小的的细节。


维生素B12
选择以下之一 (1–4):
- 2-5 µg, 每天两次(来自强化食品或补充剂) (5–12)
- 每天10-200 µg (来自补充剂) (6, 10–15)
- 每周2000-2500 µg(来自补充剂) (7, 11, 12, 16–18) 
  

每天至少摄入600mg (2, 19–28).
你可以通过每天至少食用以下富含钙的选项之一来轻松完成。
- 1杯钙强化豆奶 (3, 23, 28–31)
- 其他钙强化食品 (23, 28, 30, 32)
- 12杯煮熟的,钙含量高而草酸含量少的绿叶蔬菜。比如:....
- 小白菜
- 羽衣甘蓝
- 西兰花
- 芥菜叶
菠菜和甜菜(莙荙菜)不是很好的钙源,因为它们含有大量的草酸,可以与肠道中的钙结合。
- 500克(23杯)大白菜
- 200克豆腐(用硫酸钙制成)(23, 28–31)
- 富含钙的矿物质水也可以成为良好的钙源,如果你可以通过它每天摄入超过300mg的钙的话(看看瓶上的标注) (33, 34)
- 6干无花果(〜100克或½杯)+ 3个橙子 (23)


维生素D
夏天:
- 每天〜15-30分钟的日晒
你的影子不应该比你长。
避免晒伤。
- 补充剂(如在冬季)
不要完全避免阳光。

在冬季(维生素D冬季)
- 每天约25μg(〜1000IU)维生素D(补充剂,维生素D2或素食维生素D3(2, 3, 23, 28, 43–50)

维生素D冬季是人体不能通过日光照射产生维生素D的季节。维生素D冬季的持续时间取决于到赤道的距离(纬度)。

维生素D冬天
- 中国南方高达北纬35°
没有维生素D冬天。在这里身体可以在一年中通过足够的皮肤日晒合成维生素D  (51)
- 北纬35°40°:十二月和一月
- 北纬40°50°:十一月至二月
- 北纬50°以北:十月至三月(或更长)


  
选择以下选项之一 (2, 3, 45, 52–60)
- 每天100-200微克(补充剂)
- 像紫菜或裙带菜一样的海藻,少量,每周两到三次
- 加碘盐(1茶匙含有40-240微克碘 - 取决于国家和品牌,见包装) (61–63)
高盐摄入会增加许多人的血压 - 所以补充剂更有益于许多人。

应避免过量碘摄入!


ω-3脂肪酸
以下建议适用于男性 - 通常会摄入更多的卡路里。对于女性略少量即可。

每日选择以下选项(或混合)之一 (19,30,64–69)
- 2–3 汤匙油菜籽油 (64)
- 10核桃(〜40g (64)
- 1–2 汤匙奇亚籽 (69, 72–74)   

可选:
将上述量减半并使用素食主义者DHA补充剂(DHA:十二碳六烯酸):
- 23天(或每天)200-300mg DHA (64, 67–69, 75–77)




非常好的来源:豆类 (26, 78, 79)

其他建议(特别是月经期女性):
与富含铁的食物同时摄入维生素C可改善植物来源的铁吸收 (78, 80–83)  
- 在用餐时喝咖啡或茶会减少铁的吸收 (80–84)
- 在铸铁锅中加入番茄酱(或其他微酸味酱)可增加酱汁中的铁含量 (83–86)


非常好的来源:豆类,坚果和种子 (2, 30, 87, 88)




硒(可选)
选择(仅)以下选项之一 (45, 89–91)
- 每天通过补充剂摄入50-60微克硒(硒代蛋氨酸) (92, 95–100)
- 每天1-2粒巴西坚果 (92–95)

应避免摄入过量的硒!
在中国,有些地区的土壤含有极少量的硒。 如果你住在那里,你应该服用硒补充剂(见上文)。
在中国,也有土壤含有极多硒的地区。 如果你住在那里,你不应该服用硒补充剂 (109)

(109)


维生素A(维生素原A
非常好的来源:
- 深绿色的多叶蔬菜
- 橙色蔬菜:特别煮熟的胡萝卜,胡萝卜汁,南瓜或橙色红薯
- 橙色水果:芒果,木瓜,杏和红辣椒 (3, 45, 105)




蛋白质
非常好的来源:豆类,全谷物制品,坚果和种子。 豆类食品(豆乳,豆腐,豆类,豌豆,鹰嘴豆,花生酱等)应每日食用。
此外,获得足够的卡路里(脂肪,碳水化合物和蛋白质提供卡路里)。 如果你摄入的卡路里太少,你的身体会使用你摄入的蛋白质作为卡路里。 这可能会导致蛋白质缺乏,这反过来可能会导致你失去肌肉量。







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 (Big thank you to Meng Lu for the Chinese translation, with additional help by Lan, and Xi Wei. Thank you!)