Recomendaciones para veganos



1) Vitamina B12
Elige una de las siguientes opciones (1–4):
- 2–5 µg dos veces al día de alimentos enriquecidos con vitamina B12 o de un suplemento (5–12)
- 10–200 µg al día de un suplemento (6,10–15)
- 2000–2500 µg cada semana de un suplemento (7,11,12,16–18)


2) Calcio
Consume por lo menos 600 mg de calcio cada día (2,19–28).
Esto significa:
Elige por lo menos una de las siguientes opciones cada día. Son fuentes veganas ricas en calcio y con una biodisponibilidad alta que te suministrarán una “porción extra” de esta misma:

- 1 vaso de leche vegetal (por ejemplo, leche de soja) enriquecida con calcio (mira la etiqueta, si contiene 120 mg en 100 ml, igual que la leche de vaca) (3,23,28–31)  
- 300 mg de calcio de otros alimentos enriquecidos (por ejemplo zumo (jugo), avena, yogur de soja,…) (23,28,30,32)
- 1 o 2 tazas de una de las siguientes verduras (cocidas):
- pak choi (Brassica rapa chinensis, con hojas oscuras)
- col rizada (col crespa, Brassica oleracea acephala sabellica; en inglés: kale)
- berza común (col forrajera, Brassica oleracea viridis; en inglés: Collard greens/Spring greens)
- grelos (Brassica rapa rapa, comunes en Galicia; en inglés: broccoli raab)
- brócoli (23,28,31)
- 2 o 3 tazas de col china (Brassica rapa pekinensis, con hojas claras; en inglés: Napa cabbage) 
- 1 taza de tofu hecho con calcio (23,28–31)
- agua mineral (o agua corriente) con un contenido alto de calcio (comprobado) que te aporta por lo menos 300 mg de calcio al día (33,34)
- ½ taza de higos secos + 3 naranjas (23)
- 6 tortillas de maíz nixtamalizadas (hechas con calcio) (Ø ~15 cm) (35), (36), (37), (38), (39), (40–42)


3) Vitamina D
En verano:
- 15–30 minutos de sol cada día o más tiempo varios días a la semana (sin protector/bloqueador solar; con la cara, las manos o una parte equivalente descubierta), o bien
- un suplemento (como en el invierno). No evites el sol por completo.

En invierno (“invierno de vitamina D”):
- ~25 µg (~1000 UI) de vitamina D al día de un suplemento (2,3,23,28,43–50), aunque esto no es estrictamente necesario, si tomas mucho sol durante el verano y otoño, y si vives en un lugar, donde el “invierno de vitamina D” solo dura entre dos y tres meses. 

El “invierno de vitamina D”:
- Entre 35° de latitud norte y 35° de latitud sur (América Central; Santiago de Chile, Buenos Aires, toda Sudamérica excepto el sur de Chile y Argentina; las Canarias): No hay o casi no hay invierno de vitamina D (51).
- Entre 35° y 40° de latitud norte (Gibraltar, el sur de España) o sur (Valdivia, Mar del Plata): diciembre y enero
- Entre 40° y 50° de latitud norte (Nueva York, Madrid, el norte de España) o sur (Puerto Montt, San Carlos de Bariloche): noviembre hasta febrero
- Más de 50° de latitud norte (Londres, Bruselas, Fráncfort) o más de 50° de latitud sur (Punta Arenas, Ushuaia): octubre hasta marzo (o incluso más tiempo)    


4) Yodo
Elige una de las siguientes opciones (2,3,45,52–60):

- 100–200 µg al día de un suplemento
- algas como nori o wakame, varias veces por semana
- sal yodada (1 cucharadita de sal yodada contiene aprox. 40–240 µg de yodo, depende del país y la marca) (61–63). Evita un consumo excesivo de sal.)


5) Ácidos grasos omega-3
Elige una de las siguientes opciones o una combinación de ellas cada día (19,30,64–69). Las siguientes cantidades son recomendaciones para hombres veganos (doble cantidad de las recomendaciones oficiales). Un poco menos es suficiente para mujeres veganas, que por lo general comen menos calorías.

- aprox. 10 nueces (20 medias, aprox. 40 g) (Juglans regia) (64)
- 1–2 cucharaditas de aceite de lino (linaza) (64)
- 2 cucharadas de semillas de lino (linaza) molidas (64,70,71)
- 1–2 cucharadas de semillas de chía (69,72–74)
 - 1–2 cucharadas de aceite de cáñamo (64)
- ¼ taza de semillas de cáñamo o 1–2 cucharadas de semillas de cáñamo peladas 
- 2–3 cucharadas de aceite de colza (canola) (64)

Opcionalmente (no hay mucha evidencia para recomendar esto por el momento):
Divide entre dos las cantidades recomendadas de arriba y usa un suplemento de DHA.
- 200–300 mg DHA cada dos o tres días (cada día está bien también) (64,67–69,75–77)

6) Hierro
La solución más simple para obtener suficiente hierro es: legumbres (26,78,79).

Consejos adicionales:
- El consumo de vitamina C, junto a la comida aumenta la absorción de hierro de comidas vegetales (78,80–83).
- Beber café o té con las comidas impide la absorción de hierro (80–84).
- Cocinar una salsa ácida, por ejemplo salsa de tomates, en una olla de hierro fundido (hierro colado) aumenta la cantidad de hierro en la salsa (83–86).


7) Zinc (cinc)  
La solución más simplificada para obtener suficiente zinc es comer legumbres, frutos secos y semillas (2,30,87,88).


8) Selenio
Elige (solamente) una de las siguientes opciones (45,89–91):  
- 1–2 nueces de Brasil cada día (coquitos de Brasil, castañas de Pará, Bertholletia excelsa) (92–95)
- 50–60 µg al día de un suplemento (selenometionina) (92,95–100)

Para veganos en Canadá, EE.UU. y Venezuela los cereales y otros alimentos vegetales ya suministran mucho selenio sin que tengan que comer nueces de Brasil (101–104).


9) Vitamina A
Incluye muchas verduras de color naranja, verduras verdes y frutas de color naranja en tu dieta (3,45,105).


10) Proteína  
Incluye en tu dieta cotidiana, alimentos ricos en proteína y ricos en el aminoácido lisina. La recomendación para obtener abundantes cantidades de proteína es casi la misma que para el hierro y el zinc: comer legumbres, cereales integrales, frutos secos y semillas (3,106–108). Come suficiente calorías.





Disponible ahora en todos los sitios web de Amazon









Bibliografía

1.    Johnsen, J. B. & Fønnebø, V. Vitamin B12-mangel ved strengt vegetabilsk kosthold. Hvorfor følger noen et slikt kosthold, og hva vil de gjøre ved B12-mangel? Abstract. Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke 111, 1, 62–64 (1991)
2.     Schüpbach, R., Wegmüller, R., Berguerand, C. et al. Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. European journal of nutrition 56, 1, 283–293 (2017)
3.     Sobiecki, J. G., Appleby, P. N., Bradbury, K. E. et al. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study. Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) 36, 5, 464–477 (2016)
4.     Woo, K. S., Kwok, T. C. Y., Celermajer, D. S. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health. Nutrients 6, 8, 3259–3273 (2014)
5.     Bor, M. V., Castel-Roberts, K. M. von, Kauwell, G. P. et al. Daily intake of 4 to 7 microg dietary vitamin B-12 is associated with steady concentrations of vitamin B-12-related biomarkers in a healthy young population. The American journal of clinical nutrition 91, 3, 571–577 (2010)
6.     Carmel R (2006) Cobalamin (Vitamin B12). In Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th ed., pp. 482–497, [Shils ME, Shike M and Ross AC et al., editors]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
7.     Institute of Medicine (IOM) (1998) Dietary reference intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Papntothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline: A report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Washington DC: Nat. Acad. Press
8.     Luhby AL, Cooperman JM, Donnenfeld AM: Herrero JM et al. Observations on transfer of vitamin B12 from mother to fetus and newborn. Am J Dis Child 96, 532–533 (1958)
9.     Norris J How recommendations were formulated. Last updated: August 2013. http://www.veganhealth.org/b12/formula (accessed June 2017)
10.   Haddad, E. H., Berk, L. S., Kettering, J. D. et al. Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. The American journal of clinical nutrition 70, 3 Suppl, 586 (1999)
11.   Heyssel, R. M., Bozian, R. C., Darby, W. J. et al. Vitamin B12 turnover in man. The assimilation of vitamin B12 from natural foodstuff by man and estimates of minimal daily dietary requirements. The American journal of clinical nutrition 18, 3, 176–184 (1966)
12.   Obeid, R., Fedosov, S. N., Nexo, E. Cobalamin coenzyme forms are not likely to be superior to cyano- and hydroxyl-cobalamin in prevention or treatment of cobalamin deficiency. Molecular nutrition & food research 59, 7, 1364–1372 (2015)
13.   Adams, J. F., Ross, S. K., Mervyn, L. et al. Absorption of cyanocobalamin, coenzyme B 12 methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin at different dose levels. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 6, 3, 249–252 (1971)
14.   Carmel, R. Mandatory fortification of the food supply with cobalamin: an idea whose time has not yet come. Journal of inherited metabolic disease 34, 1, 67–73 (2011)
15.   Deshmukh, U. S., Joglekar, C. V., Lubree, H. G. et al. Effect of physiological doses of oral vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in India. European journal of clinical nutrition 64, 5, 495–502 (2010)
16.   Berlin, H., Berlin, R., Brante, G. Oral treatment of pernicious anemia with high doses of vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor. Acta medica Scandinavica 184, 4, 247–258 (1968)
17.   Donaldson, M. S. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Annals of nutrition & metabolism 44, 5-6, 229–234 (2000)
18.   Gomollón, F., Gargallo, C. J., Muñoz, J. F. et al. Oral Cyanocobalamin is Effective in the Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn's Disease. Nutrients 9, 3 (2017)
19.   Appleby, P. N. & Key, T. J. The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 75, 3, 287–293 (2016)
20.   Appleby, P., Roddam, A., Allen, N. et al. Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. European journal of clinical nutrition 61, 12, 1400–1406 (2007)
21.   Dyett, P., Rajaram, S., Haddad, E. H. et al. Evaluation of a validated food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Nutrients 6, 7, 2523–2539 (2014)
22.   Fang, A., Li, K., Guo, M. et al. Long-Term Low Intake of Dietary Calcium and Fracture Risk in Older Adults With Plant-Based Diet: A Longitudinal Study From the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Journal of bone and mineral research the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 31, 11, 2016–2023 (2016)
23.   Mangels, A. R. Bone nutrients for vegetarians. The American journal of clinical nutrition 100 Suppl 1, 469 (2014)
24.   Morales-Torres, J. & Gutiérrez-Ureña, S. The burden of osteoporosis in Latin America. Osteoporosis international a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA 15, 8, 625–632 (2004)
25.   Nachshon, L. & Katz, Y. [The importance of "milk bones" to "wisdom bones" - cow milk and bone health - lessons from milk allergy patients]. Abstract. Harefuah 155, 3, 163 (2016)
26.   Rizzo, N. S., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., Sabate, J. et al. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 113, 12, 1610–1619 (2013)
27.   Thorpe, D. L., Knutsen, S. F., Beeson, W. L. et al. Effects of meat consumption and vegetarian diet on risk of wrist fracture over 25 years in a cohort of peri- and postmenopausal women. Public health nutrition 11, 6, 564–572 (2008)
28.   Tucker, K. L. Vegetarian diets and bone status. The American journal of clinical nutrition 100 Suppl 1, 329S-35S (2014)
29.   Messina, V. & Messina, M. Soy products as sources of calcium in the diets of chinese americans. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 110, 12, 1812-3; author reply 1813 (2010)
30.   Reid, M. A., Marsh, K. A., Zeuschner, C. L. et al. Meeting the nutrient reference values on a vegetarian diet. The Medical journal of Australia 199, 4 Suppl, 40 (2013)
31.   Weaver, C. M., Proulx, W. R., Heaney, R. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. The American journal of clinical nutrition 70, 3 Suppl, 543 (1999)
32.   de Abajo, Francisco J. de, Rodríguez-Martín, S., Rodríguez-Miguel, A. et al. Risk of Ischemic Stroke Associated With Calcium Supplements With or Without Vitamin D: A Nested Case-Control Study. Journal of the American Heart Association 6, 5 (2017)
33.   Böhmer, H., Müller, H., Resch, K. L. Calcium supplementation with calcium-rich mineral waters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of its bioavailability. Osteoporosis international a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA 11, 11, 938–943 (2000)
34.   Vitoria, I., Maraver, F., Ferreira-Pêgo, C. et al. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs. Nutricion hospitalaria 30, 1, 188–199 (2014)
35.   Bressani, R., Turcios, J. C., Colmenares de Ruiz, A. S. et al. Effect of processing conditions on phytic acid, calcium, iron, and zinc contents of lime-cooked maize. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 52, 5, 1157–1162 (2004)
36.   Hambidge, K. M., Krebs, N. F., Westcott, J. L. et al. Absorption of calcium from tortilla meals prepared from low-phytate maize. The American journal of clinical nutrition 82, 1, 84–87 (2005)
37.   Islas-Rubio, A. R., La Barca, A. M. C. de, Molina-Jacott, L. E. et al. Development and evaluation of a nutritionally enhanced multigrain tortilla snack. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 69, 2, 128–133 (2014)
38.   Monárrez-Espino J, Béjar-Lío GI, Vázquez-Mendoza G Adecuación de la dieta servida a escolares en albergues indigenistas de la Sierra Tarahumara, México. Salud Pública Méx 52, 23–29 (2010)
39.   Pappa, M. R., Palomo, P. P. de, Bressani, R. Effect of lime and wood ash on the nixtamalization of maize and tortilla chemical and nutritional characteristics. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 65, 2, 130–135 (2010)
40.   Rosado, J. L., López, P., Morales, M. et al. Bioavailability of energy, nitrogen, fat, zinc, iron and calcium from rural and urban Mexican diets. The British journal of nutrition 68, 1, 45–58 (1992)
41.   Rosado, J. L., Díaz, M., Rosas, A. et al. Calcium absorption from corn tortilla is relatively high and is dependent upon calcium content and liming in Mexican women. The Journal of nutrition 135, 11, 2578–2581 (2005)
42.   Serna-Saldivar, S. O., Amaya Guerra, C. A., Herrera Macias, P. et al. Evaluation of the lime-cooking and tortilla making properties of quality protein maize hybrids grown in Mexico. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 63, 3, 119–125 (2008)
43.   Holick, M. F. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders (2017)
44.   Ho-Pham, L. T., Vu, B. Q., Lai, T. Q. et al. Vegetarianism, bone loss, fracture and vitamin D: a longitudinal study in Asian vegans and non-vegans. European journal of clinical nutrition 66, 1, 75–82 (2012)
45.   Kristensen, N. B., Madsen, M. L., Hansen, T. H. et al. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans. Nutrition journal 14, 115 (2015)
46.   Outila, T. A., Kärkkäinen, M. U. M., Seppänen, R. H. et al. Dietary Intake of Vitamin D in Premenopausal, Healthy Vegans was Insufficient to Maintain Concentrations of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Intact Parathyroid Hormone Within Normal Ranges During the Winter in Finland. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100, 4, 434–441 (2000)
47.   Plehwe, W. E. & Carey, R. P. L. Spinal surgery and severe vitamin D deficiency. The Medical journal of Australia 176, 9, 438–439 (2002)
48.   Smith, T. J., Tripkovic, L., Damsgaard, C. T. et al. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 y: a dose-response, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition 104, 5, 1301–1309 (2016)
49.   Ustianowski, A., Shaffer, R., Collin, S. et al. Prevalence and associations of vitamin D deficiency in foreign-born persons with tuberculosis in London. The Journal of infection 50, 5, 432–437 (2005)
50.   Vidailhet, M., Mallet, E., Bocquet, A. et al. Vitamin D: still a topical matter in children and adolescents. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics. Archives de pediatrie organe officiel de la Societe francaise de pediatrie 19, 3, 316–328 (2012)
51.   Jäpelt, R. B. & Jakobsen, J. Vitamin D in plants: a review of occurrence, analysis, and biosynthesis. Frontiers in plant science 4, 136 (2013)
52.   Davidsson, L. Are vegetarians an 'at risk group' for iodine deficiency? The British journal of nutrition 81, 1, 3–4 (1999)
53.   Elorinne, A.-L., Alfthan, G., Erlund, I. et al. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians. PloS one 11, 2, e0148235 (2016)
54.   Fields, C., Dourson, M., Borak, J. Iodine-deficient vegetarians: a hypothetical perchlorate-susceptible population? Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology RTP 42, 1, 37–46 (2005)
55.   Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M., Bucková, K., Klimes, I. et al. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Annals of nutrition & metabolism 47, 5, 183–185 (2003)
56.   Leung, A. M., Lamar, A., He, X. et al. Iodine status and thyroid function of Boston-area vegetarians and vegans. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 96, 8, E1303-7 (2011)
57.   Lightowler, H. J. & Davies, G. J. Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique. European journal of clinical nutrition 56, 8, 765–770 (2002)
58.   Lightowler, H. J. & Davies, G. J. Iodine intake and iodine deficiency in vegans as assessed by the duplicate-portion technique and urinary iodine excretion. The British journal of nutrition 80, 6, 529–535 (1998)
59.   Kanaka, C., Schütz, B., Zuppinger, K. A. Risks of alternative nutrition in infancy: a case report of severe iodine and carnitine deficiency. European journal of pediatrics 151, 10, 786–788 (1992)
60.   Remer, T., Neubert, A., Manz, F. Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutrition. The British journal of nutrition 81, 1, 45–49 (1999)
61.   García-Casal, M. N., Landaeta, M., Adrianza de Baptista, G. et al. Valores de referencia de hierro, yodo, zinc, selenio, cobre, molibdeno, vitamina C, vitamina E, vitamina K, carotenoides y polifenoles para la población venezolana. Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion 63, 4, 338–361 (2013)
62.   Rohner, F., Zimmermann, M., Jooste, P. et al. Biomarkers of nutrition for development--iodine review. The Journal of nutrition 144, 8, 1322S-1342S (2014)
63.   Zimmermann, M. B. & Andersson, M. Assessment of iodine nutrition in populations: past, present, and future. Nutrition reviews 70, 10, 553–570 (2012)
64.   Davis, B. C. & Kris-Etherton, P. M. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. The American journal of clinical nutrition 78, 3 Suppl, 640 (2003)
65.   Domenichiello, A. F., Chen, C. T., Trepanier, M.-O. et al. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats. Journal of lipid research 55, 1, 62–74 (2014)
66.   Fayet-Moore, F., Baghurst, K., Meyer, B. J. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages. Nutrients 7, 10, 8602–8614 (2015)
67.   Harris, W. S. Achieving optimal n-3 fatty acid status: the vegetarian's challenge… or not. The American journal of clinical nutrition 100 Suppl 1, 449S-52S (2014)
68.   Sanders, T. A. B. DHA status of vegetarians. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids 81, 2-3, 137–141 (2009)
69.   Saunders, A. V., Davis, B. C., Garg, M. L. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets. Med J Aust 1, 2, 22–26 (2012)
70.   Demark-Wahnefried, W., Polascik, T. J., George, S. L. et al. Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 17, 12, 3577–3587 (2008)
71.   Hackshaw-McGeagh, L. E., Perry, R. E., Leach, V. A. et al. A systematic review of dietary, nutritional, and physical activity interventions for the prevention of prostate cancer progression and mortality. Cancer causes & control CCC 26, 11, 1521–1550 (2015)
72.   EFSA Opinion on the safety of ‘Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and ground whole Chia seeds’ as a food ingredient. EFSA Journal 7, 4, 996 (2009)
73.   Mohd Ali, N., Yeap, S. K., Ho, W. Y. et al. The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L. Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology 2012, 171956 (2012)
74.   Ullah, R., Nadeem, M., Khalique, A. et al. Nutritional and therapeutic perspectives of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a review. Journal of food science and technology 53, 4, 1750–1758 (2016)
75.   Cottin, S. C., Sanders, T. A., Hall, W. L. The differential effects of EPA and DHA on cardiovascular risk factors. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 70, 2, 215–231 (2011)
76.   Geppert, J., Kraft, V., Demmelmair, H. et al. Microalgal docosahexaenoic acid decreases plasma triacylglycerol in normolipidaemic vegetarians: a randomised trial. The British journal of nutrition 95, 4, 779–786 (2006)
77.   Sarter, B., Kelsey, K. S., Schwartz, T. A. et al. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 34, 2, 212–218 (2015)
78.   Waldmann, A., Koschizke, J. W., Leitzmann, C. et al. Dietary iron intake and iron status of German female vegans: results of the German vegan study. Annals of nutrition & metabolism 48, 2, 103–108 (2004)
79.   Gorczyca, D., Prescha, A., Szeremeta, K. et al. Iron status and dietary iron intake of vegetarian children from Poland. Annals of nutrition & metabolism 62, 4, 291–297 (2013)
80.   Craig, W. J. Iron status of vegetarians. The American journal of clinical nutrition 59, 5 Suppl, 1233 (1994)
81.   Gibson, R. S., Heath, A.-L. M., Szymlek-Gay, E. A. Is iron and zinc nutrition a concern for vegetarian infants and young children in industrialized countries? The American journal of clinical nutrition 100 Suppl 1, 459S-68S (2014)
82.   Hurrell, R. & Egli, I. Iron bioavailability and dietary reference values. The American journal of clinical nutrition 91, 5, 1461S-1467S (2010)
83.   Hunt, J. R. Moving toward a plant-based diet: are iron and zinc at risk? Nutrition reviews 60, 5 Pt 1, 127–134 (2002)
84.   Hunt, J. R. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets. The American journal of clinical nutrition 78, 3 Suppl, 633 (2003)
85.   Quintaes, K. D., Amaya-Farfan, J., Tomazini, F. M. et al. Mineral Migration and Influence of Meal Preparation in Iron Cookware on the Iron Nutritional Status of Vegetarian Students. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 46, 2, 125–141 (2007)
86.   Sanders TAB (2012) Vegetarian diets. In Human nutrition. 12th ed., pp. 355–363, [Geissler CA and Powers HJ, editors]. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier
87.   Ball, M. J. & Ackland, M. L. Zinc intake and status in Australian vegetarians. The British journal of nutrition 83, 1, 27–33 (2000)
88.   Saunders, A. V., Craig, W. J., Baines, S. K. Zinc and vegetarian diets. Med J Aust 1, 2, 17–21 (2012)
89.   Hildbrand SM (2015) Bedeutung des Jod/Selen-Quotienten und des Ferritins für das Auftreten einer Autoimmunthyreoiditis (AIT) bei omnivor, lakto-vegetarisch und vegan sich ernährenden Personen: Eine epidemiologische klinische Querschnittstudie. Dissertation zum Erwerb des Doktorgrades der Medizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
90.   Hoeflich, J., Hollenbach, B., Behrends, T. et al. The choice of biomarkers determines the selenium status in young German vegans and vegetarians. The British journal of nutrition 104, 11, 1601–1604 (2010)
91.   Lightowler, H. J. & Davies, G. J. Micronutrient intakes in a group of UK vegans and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements. The journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 120, 2, 117–124 (2000)
92.   Thomson, C. D., Chisholm, A., McLachlan, S. K. et al. Brazil nuts: an effective way to improve selenium status. The American journal of clinical nutrition 87, 2, 379–384 (2008)
93.   Colpo, E., Vilanova, C. D. d. A., Brenner Reetz, L. G. et al. A single consumption of high amounts of the Brazil nuts improves lipid profile of healthy volunteers. Journal of nutrition and metabolism 2013, 11348568653185 (2013)
94.   Martens, I. B. G., Cardoso, B. R., Hare, D. J. et al. Selenium status in preschool children receiving a Brazil nut-enriched diet. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) 31, 11-12, 1339–1343 (2015)
95.   Dumont, E., Vanhaecke, F., Cornelis, R. Selenium speciation from food source to metabolites: a critical review. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 385, 7, 1304–1323 (2006)
96.   Benstoem, C., Goetzenich, A., Kraemer, S. et al. Selenium and its supplementation in cardiovascular disease--what do we know? Nutrients 7, 5, 3094–3118 (2015)
97.   Ogawa-Wong, A. N., Berry, M. J., Seale, L. A. Selenium and Metabolic Disorders: An Emphasis on Type 2 Diabetes Risk. Nutrients 8, 2, 80 (2016)
98.   Thomson, C. D. Assessment of requirements for selenium and adequacy of selenium status: a review. European journal of clinical nutrition 58, 3, 391–402 (2004)
99.   Wrobel, J. K., Power, R., Toborek, M. Biological activity of selenium: Revisited. IUBMB life 68, 2, 97–105 (2016)
100. Xia, Y., Hill, K. E., Byrne, D. W. et al. Effectiveness of selenium supplements in a low-selenium area of China. The American journal of clinical nutrition 81, 4, 829–834 (2005)
101. Combs, G. F. Selenium in global food systems. The British journal of nutrition 85, 5, 517–547 (2001)
102. Combs Jr GF & Combs SB (1986) The role of selenium in nutrition. Orlando: Academic Press
103. Mondragón, M. C. & Jaffé, W. G. Consumo de selenio en la ciudad de Caracas en comparación con el de otras ciudades del mundo. Abstract. Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion 26, 3, 343–352 (1976)
104. Surai PF (2006) Selenium in nutrition and health. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press
105. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Nutritional situation in the Americas. Epidemiological bulletin 15, 3, 1–6 (1994)
106. Lousuebsakul-Matthews, V., Thorpe, D. L., Knutsen, R. et al. Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2. Public health nutrition 17, 10, 2333–2343 (2014)
107. Shams-White, M. M., Chung, M., Du, M. et al. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. The American journal of clinical nutrition 105, 6, 1528–1543 (2017)
108. Marsh, K. A., Munn, E. A., Baines, S. K. Protein and vegetarian diets. Med J Aust 1, 2, 7–10 (2012)