Mga rekomendasyon sa nutrisyon para sa mga vegan sa Pilipinas (Tagalog/English)

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Panimula

Ang mga sumusunod na rekomendasyon ay pangkalahatang gabay para sa iyong kaalaman Hindi kinakailangang sundin ang mga ito hanggang sa pinakamaliit na detalye. Gayundin, ang mga rekomendasyong ito ay mahalaga rin sa pangmatagalan. Halimbawa, walang mga negatibong epekto sa iyong kalusugan ang hindi ka pag-inom ng suplementong bitamina B12 sa loob ng ilang araw o linggo (o buwan).

Introduction

The following recommendations are general guidelines for your orientation. You do not have to follow them to the smallest detail. Also, these recommendations are important in the long-term. For example, there will be no negative consequences for your health if you do not take a vitamin B12 supplement for a few days or weeks (or months).

Pagpapaikli / Abbreviations

  • µg = mcg = microgram = 1/1000 ng isang milligram / microgram
  • mg = miligram /milligram
  • g = gramo / gram
  • IU = international unit
 

1) Bitamina B12 

Pumili ng isa sa mga sumusunod [1–4]:

  • 2–5 µg dalawang beses bawat araw (mula sa pinatibay na pagkain o isang suplemento) [5–11]
  • 10–200 µg bawat araw mula sa isang suplemento [6,9–14]
  • 2000–2500 µg bawat linggo mula sa isang suplemento [7,10,11,15–17]

 

1) Vitamin B12

Choose one of the following options [1–4]:

  • 2–5 µg twice per day (from fortified foods or a supplement) [5–11]
  • 10–200 µg per day from a supplement [6,9–14]
  • 2000–2500 µg per week from a supplement [7,10,11,15–17]

 

2) Calcium (kaltsyum) 

Mainam na kumain ng mga pagkaing mayaman sa kaltsyum araw-araw. Sa mga teknikal na termino: dapat mong kamtin upang makonsumo ng hindi bababa sa 600 mg ng calciumbawat araw [2,18–27]. Paano? Pumili ng kahit isa sa mga sumusunod na pagpipilian sa araw-araw. Ang mga pagkaing ito ay magbibigay sa iyo ng ilang karagdagang calcium:

  • 1 baso ng soya milk na pinatibay ng kaltsyum (o ibang vegan na “gatas”; dapat nakasaad sa label na naglalaman ito ng 120 mg kaltsyum sa bawat 100 ML – tulad ng gatas ng baka) [3,22,27–30]
  • iba pang mga pagkaing pinatibay ng kaltsyum, halimbawa, juice, soya yogurt, rolled oats, tinapay, ...) [22,27,29,31]
  • 1 tasa ng tokwa (tofu) na gawa sa calcium [22,27–30]
  • 1 hanggang 2 tasa ng lutong matingkad na berdeng mga gulay, tulad ng:
    • pechay (pak choi, bok choy, Brassica rapa chinensis) [~90 mg calcium sa 100 g luto] 
    • malunggay (moringa, drumstick leaves, Moringa oleifera) [~190 mg mg calcium sa 100 g luto]
    • kangkong (water spinach, river spinach, water convolvulus, Ipomoea aquatica) [~50 mg calcium sa 100 g luto]
    • mustasa (crispy mustard, mustard leaves, mustard cabbage, Brassica juncea) [~110 mg calcium sa 100 g luto]
    • alugbati (Malabar spinach, vine spinach, Basella alba) [~120 mg calcium sa 100 g luto] 
    • dahon ng taro (taro leaves) [~90-110 mg mg calcium sa 100 g luto]
    • okra [~10-90 mg calcium sa 100 g luto] [32] (Maaaring ang mga dahon ng okra ay maganda din na mapagkukunan ng calcium [~ 290 mg calcium sa 100 g luto [33]]. Ang okra ay tila mababa sa oxalic acid.[32] Mabuti ito sapagkat binabawasan ng oxalic acid ang bioavailability ng calcium.)
    • dahon ng kamote (sweet potato leaves) [~30 mg calcium sa 100 g luto]
    • pechay baguio (wombok, napa cabbage, Brassica rapa pekinensis) o 2 hanggang 3 tasa ng hilaw / hindi lutong pechay baguio
    • brokuli (broccoli) [22,27,30]
    • bersa, lunting kolardo, o kales (kale, Brassica oleracea palmifolia
    • mga collard greens (Collard greens, Spring greens, Brassica oleracea Pangkat Acephala)
    • dahon ng singkamas (turnip greens, Brassica rapa rapa
    • pako (vegetable fern, Diplazium esculentum, Athyrium esculentum) [~40–1300 mg calcium sa 100 g luto.[34,35]] (Ang mga dahon ng pako ay tila mababa sa oxalic acid.[36])
    • dahon ng kalabasa (pumpkin leaves) [~ 40 mg calcium sa 100 g luto] 
    • dahon ng saluyot (Jute mallow leaves, Corchorus olitorius) [~40 mg calcium sa 100 g luto]
    • dahon ng ampalaya (bitter melon leaves, Momordica charantia) [~40 mg calcium sa 100 g luto]
    • rapini (broccoli rabe, Brassica rapa Pangkat Ruvo)
    • dahon ng dandelion (dandelion leaves
    • dahon ng nettle (nettle leaves

Ang espinaka (ispinats, spinach) at chard ay hindi mahusay na mapagkukunan ng calcium, dahil mababa ang bioavailability.
  • tubig na mayamang sa calcium / mineral na tubig na dapat magbigay ng hindi bababa sa 300 mg calcium bawat araw – suriin ang label [37,38]
  • ½ tasa ng pinatuyong igos + 3 mga dalandan [22]
  • 6 nixtamalized mais na mga tortilla (Ø ~ 15 cm) (Magagamit ang mga ito sa Mexico at Guatemala.) [39–46]


2) Calcium

Ideally, consume calcium-rich foods every day. In technical terms: you should achieve to consume at least 600 mg of calcium per day [2,18–27]. How? Choose at least one of the following options every day. These foods will provide you with some extra calcium:

  • 1 glass of calcium fortified plant milk (for example soya milk; the label should state that it contains 120 mg of calcium per 100 ml – just like cow’s milk) [3,22,27–30]
  • other calcium fortified foods, for example juice, soya yoghurt, rolled oats, bread, ...) [22,27,29,31]
  • 1 cup of tofu made with calcium [22,27–30]
  • 1 to 2 cups of cooked dark green leafy vegetables, like:
    • pak choi (bok choy) [~90 mg calcium/100 g cooked]
    • moringa (malunggay, drumstick leaves, Moringa oleifera) [~190 mg mg calcium/100 g cooked]
    • kangkong (water spinach, river spinach, water convolvulus, Ipomoea aquatica) [~50 mg calcium sa 100 g luto]
    • mustard leaves (mustasa, crispy mustard, mustard cabbage, Brassica juncea) [~110 mg calcium/100 g cooked]
    • Malabar spinach (alugbati, vine spinach, Basella alba) [~120 mg calcium/100 g cooked]
    • taro leaves (dahon ng taro) [~90-110 mg mg calcium/100 g cooked]
    • okra [~10-90 mg calcium/100 g cooked][32] (Probably okra leaves are also a good source of calcium [~290 mg calcium/100 g cooked [33]]. Okra seems to be low in oxalic acid.[32] This is good because oxalic acid reduces the bioavailability of calcium.)
    • sweet potato leaves (dahon ng kamote) [~30 mg calcium/100 g cooked]
    • Napa cabbage (pechay baguio, wombok, Brassica rapa pekinensis) (or 2 to 3 cups raw Napa cabbage)
    • broccoli (brokuli) [22,27,30]
    • kale
    • Collard greens (Spring greens)
    • turnip greens
    • vegetable fern (pako, Diplazium esculentum, Athyrium esculentum) [~40–1300 mg calcium/100 g cooked.[34,35]] (Vegetable fern leaves seem to be low in oxalic acid.[36])
    • pumpkin leaves (dahon ng kalabasa) [~ 40 mg calcium/100 g cooked]
    • Jute mallow leaves (dahon ng saluyot, Corchorus olitorius) [~40 mg calcium/100 g cooked] 
    • bitter melon leaves (dahon ng ampalaya, Momordica charantia) [~40 mg calcium/100 g cooked]
    • rapini (broccoli rabe, Brassica rapa Pangkat Ruvo)
    • dandelion leaves
    • nettle leaves
While spinach and chard are rich in calcium they are also rich in oxalic acid, which decreases calcium bioavailability. So, spinach and chard are not good calcium sources.
  • calcium rich water/mineral water which should provide at least 300 mg calcium per day – check the label [37,38]
  • ½ cup of dried figs + 3 oranges [22]
  • 6 nixtamalized corn (maize) tortillas (Ø ~15 cm) (These are available in Mexico and Guatemala.) [39–46]

 

3) Bitamina D

Sa Pilipinas maaari kang makakuha ng sapat na bitamina D mula sa sikat ng araw – ngunit kung regular mong ilalabas ang iyong balat sa sikat ng araw. Sa Pilipinas maaari kang makakuha ng sapat na bitamina D mula sa sikat ng araw – ngunit ito ay makakamit kung regular na magpapabilad sa araw. Sa pangkalahatang sabi, ang 10 minuto (tanghali) hanggang 30 minuto (umaga o gabi) ng direktang sikat ng araw sa iyong balat bawat araw ay dapat sapat. O maaari ibilad sa araw nang mas matagal (halimbawa 1 oras), ngunit hindi gaanong madalas (halimbawa, sa katapusan ng linggo). Iwasang masunog ang balat.

O maaari kang kumuha ng suplemento sa bitamina D – ngunit huwag iwasang ganap ang araw.

Kung iinom ka ng suplemento sa bitamina D, kumuha ng:
  • ~10–25 µg (~400–1000 IU) bitamina D bawat araw [2,3,22,27,47–55]
Huwag lalabis ng higit sa 50 µg (2000 IU) bawat araw, maliban kung payuhan ka ng isang medikal na doktor na gawin ito.

Ang Pilipinas ay matatagpuan sa isang latitude na humigit-kumulang 18° hilaga hanggang 6° hilaga. Dahil sa lapit nIto sa ekwador ang iyong katawan ay maaaring makabuo ng bitamina D mula sa sikat ng araw sa buong taon [56].


3) Vitamin D

In the Philippines you can get enough vitamin D from sunshine – but only if you regularly expose your skin to sunshine. Very generally speaking, about 10 minutes (midday) to 30 minutes (morning or evening) of direct sunshine on your skin per day should be sufficient. Or you can more sunshine less often. Avoid sunburn.

You can also take a vitamin D supplement instead – but do not avoid the sun completely.
If you take a vitamin D supplement, take:
  • ~10–25 µg (~400–1000 IU) vitamin D per day [2,3,22,27,47–55]
Do not take more than 50 µg (2000 IU) per day, unless a medical doctor advises you to do so. 

The Philippines are located at a latitude of around 18° north to 6° north. This close to the equator your body can produce vitamin D from sunshine all year round [56].


4) Iodine

Pumili ng isa sa mga sumusunod (o isang halo ng mga pagpipiliang ito) [2,3,49,57–65]:
  • 100–150 µg ng yodo bawat araw mula sa isang suplemento - hindi hihigit sa 200 µg bawat araw
  • Seaweed – tulad ng lato (arosep, sea grapes, berde na "caviar", Caulerpa lentillifera), guso (Eucheuma cottonii), nori, o (well-rinsed) wakame – maraming beses bawat linggo
100 µg ng yodo ay matatagpuan sa:
    • ~50–200 g ng sariwang guso (ang guso ay tila mababa sa sodyum (sodyo) - na mabuti.) [66–69] ... o ...
    • ~50–200 g ng sariwang lato (Ang lato ay tila mataas sa sodyum - iwasang kumain ng maraming lato lalo na kung may mataas kang presyon ng dugo.) [68,70] ... o ...
    • ~1–2 sheet ng nori (~ 2.5 g) (Ang Nori ay tila mababa sa sodyum - na mabuti.) ... o ...
    • ~0.5–30 g ng pinatuyong wakame (Gumamit ng maliit na halaga - tulad ng isang maliit na dakot - banlawan-balon, singaw o pakuluan, at itapon ang tubig. Ang wakame ay malamang na mataas din sa sodyum.)
  • Asin na pinatibay ng yodo (iodized salt; Ang 1 kutsarita ay naglalaman ng 40–240 µg ng yodo – suriin ang label [71–73].)

Iwasan ang labis na paggamit ng asin, lalo na kung may mataas kang presyon ng dugo. Inirerekumenda ng Mga Alituntunin sa Pandiyeta sa 2015–2020 para sa mga Amerikano na ubusin mas mababa sa 2300 mg ng sodyum [~5.8 g ng asin] bawat araw. Ang lahat ng iba pang mga pagkain na iyong kinakain ay naglalaman din ng mas maliit na halaga ng yodo. Para sa mga matatanda ang rekomendasyon ay ubusin ang tungkol sa 150 µg ng yodo bawat araw. Iwasang ubusin ang sobrang yodo. Ang regular na pag-ubos ng higit sa ~1000 µg ng yodo bawat araw ay itinuturing na labis.

4) Iodine

Choose one of the following options (or a mix of these options) [2,3,49,57–65]:
  • 100–150 µg of iodine per day from a supplement – not more than 200 µg per day
  • Seaweed – such as lato (arosep, sea grapes, green “caviar”, Caulerpa lentillifera), guso (Eucheuma cottonii), nori, or (well-rinsed) wakame – several times per week
100 µg of iodine can be found in:
    • ~50–200 g of fresh guso (Guso seems to be relatively low in sodium – which is good.) [66–69] ... or ...
    • ~50–200 g of fresh lato (Lato seems to be relatively high in sodium – avoid eating large amounts of lato especially if you have high blood pressure.) [68,70] ... or ...
    • ~1–2 sheets of nori (~ 2.5 g) (Nori seems to be low in sodium – which is good.) ... or ...
    • ~0.5–30 g of dried wakame (Use small amounts – like a small handful – rinse-well, steam or boil, and discard the water. Wakame is likely also high in sodium.)
  • Iodized salt (1 teaspoon of iodized salt contains 40–240 µg of iodine – check the label [71–73].)

Avoid excessive salt intake, especially if you have high blood pressure. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend to consume less than 2300 mg of sodium [~5.8 g of salt] per day. All other foods you eat also contain smaller amounts of iodine. For adults the recommendation is to consume about 150 µg of iodine per day. Avoid consuming too much iodine. Regularly consuming more than ~1000 µg of iodine per day is considered too much.

5) Omega-3 fatty acids

Pumili ng isa sa mga pagpipiliang ito araw-araw [18,29,74–79]. Ang mga sumusunod na rekomendasyon ay para sa mga kalalakihan – na sa pangkalahatan ay kumukunsumo ng mas maraming calories. Para sa mga kababaihan, ang mas kaunti na dami ay sapat na.
  • 1–2 tablespoons ng chia seed [79–82]
  • ~10 mga walnuts (= 20 mga walnut halves; ~ 40 g) [74]
  • 1–2 kutsarita ng langis na linseed oil (flaxseed oil) [74]
  • 2 kutsarang ground lino (linseeds, flaxseeds) [74,83,84]
  • 1–2 kutsarang langis ng binhi ng abaka [74]
  • ¼ tasa ng mga binhi ng abaka, o 1-2 kutsarang mga naka-kulong na buto ng abaka
  • 2–3 tablespoons ng rapeseed oil (canola oil) [74]

Opsyonal (walang gaanong katibayan para sa pagrerekomenda nito para sa average na vegan):
Gumamit ng kalahati ng mga rekomendasyon sa itaas – at magdagdag ng isang vegan supplement ng DHA (docosahexaenoic acid):
  • 200–300 mg DHA bawat dalawa o tatlong araw (o araw-araw kung nais mo) [74,77–79,85–87]

5) Omega-3 fatty acids

Choose one of these options every day.[18,29,74–79] The following recommendations are for men – who generally consume more calories. For women a little less is sufficient.
  • 1–2 tablespoons of chia seeds [79–82]
  • ~10 walnuts (=20 walnut halves; ~40 g) [74]
  • 1–2 teaspoons of linseed oil (flaxseed oil) [74]
  • 2 tablespoons of ground linseeds (flaxseeds) [74,83,84]
  • 1–2 tablespoons of hemp seed oil [74]
  • ¼ cup of hemp seeds or 1–2 tablespoons of shelled hemp seeds
  • 2–3 tablespoons of rapeseed oil (canola oil) [74]
Optionally (there isn’t much evidence for recommending this for the average vegan):
Use half of the above recommendations – and add a vegan DHA supplement:
  • 200–300 mg DHA every two or three days (or every day if you like) [74,77–79,85–87]

6) Iron

Kumain ng mga legume araw-araw o halos araw-araw.[25,88,89]

Mga karagdagang tip:
  • Ang pag-ubos ng bitamina C kasabay ng mga pagkaing mayaman sa iron ay nagdaragdag ng pagsipsip ng iron mula sa mga mapagkukunan ng halaman.[88,90–93]
  • Ang pag-inom ng kape o tsaa kasabay sa pagkain ay nagpapababa ng bisa ng iron.[90–94]
  • Ang pagluluto ng sarsa ng kamatis (o iba pang mga sarsa na medyo acidic) sa cast iron cookware ay nagdaragdag ng dami ng iron sa sarsa.[93–96]

6) Iron

Eat legumes daily or almost daily.[25,88,89]

Additional tips:
  • Consuming vitamin C at the same time as iron rich foods increases the absorption of iron from plant sources.[88,90–93]
  • Drinking coffee or tea with meals lowers the absorption of iron.[90–94]
  • Cooking tomato sauce (or other sauces that are slightly acidic) in cast iron cookware increases the amount of iron in the sauce.[93–96]

7) Zinc (sink)

Kumain ng mga legume, mani at buto araw-araw o halos araw-araw.[2,29,97,98]


7) Zinc

Eat legumes, nuts and seeds daily or almost daily.[2,29,97,98]


8) Selenium (siliniyum, selenyo)

Sa Pilipinas ang mga lupa sa pangkalahatan ay mataas sa selenium.[99] Samakatuwid, ang mga vegan sa Pilipinas ay hindi dapat mag-alala tungkol sa mababang paggamit ng selenium.[99,100]

Ang mga seaweeds gaya ng lato at guso ay mayaman din sa selenium.

Ang mga vegan na naninirahan sa Unites States o Canada ay hindi dapat mag-alala tungkol sa selenium.[101–104] Ang mga Vegan na naninirahan sa Europa ay dapat pagtuunan ng pansin ang selenium.[49,58,105–116])

8) Selenium

In the Philippines the soils are generally high in selenium.[99] Therefore, vegans in the Philippines do not have to be concerned about low selenium intakes.[99,100]

The seaweeds lato and guso are also rich in selenium.

Vegans who live in the Unites States or Canada do not have to be concerned about selenium.[101–104] Vegans who live in Europe should (ideally) pay attention to selenium.[49,58,105–116]

9) Bitamina A

Kumain ng maraming berdeng gulay, kulay kahel na prutas at gulay.[3,49,117] Magandang mapagkukunan ng beta-carotene (provitamin A) ay, halimbawa: lutong karot, katas ng carrot, kalabasa, kulay kahel na kamote, anumang berdeng malabay na gulay, siling-pula – at mga kahel na prutas tulad ng mangga, papaya o kaki.

9) Vitamin A

Eat plenty of dark green vegetables, orange coloured fruits and orange coloured vegetables.[3,49,117] Great beta-carotene sources are, for example: cooked carrots, carrot juice, pumpkin, orange coloured sweet potatoes, any dark green leafy vegetable – and orange coloured fruits like mangoes and papayas as well as red bell peppers.

10) Protina

Kumain ng mga legume, buong butil, mani at buto.[3,118–120]
 
Kumain ng mga legume (sitaw, patani, munggo, bataw, soya milk, tokwa, gisantes, mani, peanut butter, soya na harina) o pistachios o hemp seed o quinoa o amaranth araw-araw.

Kumain ng sapat na calories. Karamihan sa mga vegan ay kumakain ng sapat na calories. Ngunit kung hindi ka kumain ng sapat na calorie ang iyong katawan ay gagamit ng protina na iyong kinakain bilang calorie, at maaari kang magkulang sa protina na maaaring maging dahilan ng pagnipis o pagkawala ng iyong kalamnan. Ang kaunting protina ay maaari ding masama sa iyong mga buto.

10) Protein

Eat legumes, whole grains, nuts and seeds.[3,118–120]

Eat legumes (mung beans, soya milk, tofu, beans, peas, peanuts, peanut butter, soya flour) or pistachios or hemp seeds or quinoa or amaranth daily.

Eat enough calories. Most vegans eat enough calories. But if you don’t eat enough calories your body will use the protein you eat as calories, and you might end up with too little protein and you might lose muscle mass. Not getting enough protein may also harm your bones.


 

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Healthy vegan lifestyle 🍒🍉🍈🍑🍅🍋🍎🍌🍆
















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