Recomendações de nutrição para veganos


1) Vitamina B12
Escolha uma das seguintes opções (1–4):
- 2,5 µg duas vezes por dia (alimentos fortificados com vitamina B12 ou um suplemento) (5–12)
- 10–200 µg por dia de um suplemento (6, 10–15)
- 2000–2500 µg por semana de um suplemento (7, 11, 12, 16–18)



2) Cálcio
Recomendo consumir pelo menos 600 mg de cálcio por dia (2, 19–28).
Isso você pode facilmente realizar se você recebe uma “porção extra” diária de cerca de 300 mg do cálcio, além dos outros alimentos que você consome.
Selecione pelo menos uma das seguintes opções diariamente. Eles são fontes veganas ricas em cálcio com alta biodisponibilidade que proporcionará uma “porção extra” do cálcio:

- 1 xícara de leite vegetal (como leite de soja) enriquecido com cálcio (consulte a etiqueta, se ele contém 120 mg em 100 ml, como o leite de vaca) (3, 23, 28–31)  
- 300 mg de cálcio de outros alimentos enriquecidos (por exemplo, suco, aveia, iogurte de soja, etc.) (23,28,30,32)
- 1 ou 2 copos de um dos seguintes vegetais de folhas verdes (cozidos):
- pak-choi (bok choy; Brassica rapa chinensis)
- couve-de-folhas (couve-tronchuda; Brassica oleracea acephala sabellica; em Inglês: kale)
- couve-galega (couve-portuguesa, couve-folha, berça; Brassica oleracea viridis; em Inglês: Collard greens/Spring greens)
- grelos (Brassica rapa rapa; comum na Galiza e em Portugal; em Inglês: broccoli raab)
- brócolis (23, 28, 31)
- 2 ou 3 xícaras de repolho-chinês (Brassica rapa pekinensis; com folhas de cor clara; em Inglês: Napa cabbage)
- 1 xícara de tofu feito com cálcio (23, 28–31) 
- água mineral (ou água da torneira) com um elevado teor de cálcio (testado) que proporciona pelo menos 300 mg de cálcio diariamente (33, 34)
- ½ copo de figos secos + 3 laranjas (23)


3) Vitamina D
No verão:
- 15–30 minutos de sol por dia ou mais tempo vários dias por semana (sem protetor solar, com o rosto e os mãos ou uma parte equivalente descobertos)
ou
- um suplemento (como no inverno). Não evite o sol completamente.

No inverno ( “inverno de vitamina D”):
- ~25 µg (~1000 UI) de vitamina D por dia de um suplemento (2, 3, 23, 28, 43–50), embora este não seja estritamente necessário, se você toma muito sol e se você vive em um lugar onde o “inverno de vitamina D” não existe ou dura apenas dois ou três meses.

O “inverno de vitamina D”:
- Entre 35° de latitude norte e 35° de latitude sul (todo Brasil, América Central, a maior parte da América do Sul, Angola): Não há nenhum inverno de vitamina D (51). Pode-se produzir vitamina D na pele durante todo o ano.
- Entre 35° e 40° de latitude norte (Lisboa) ou sul: dezembro e janeiro
- Entre 40° e 50° de latitude norte (Norte de Portugal, Nova Iorque) ou sul: novembro a fevereiro
- Acima de 50° de latitude norte (Londres) ou abaixo de 50° de latitude sul: outubro a março (ou até mais)


4) Iodo
Escolha uma das seguintes opções (2, 3, 45, 52-60):

- 100–200 μg por dia de um suplemento
- algas como nori ou wakame, várias vezes por semana
- sal iodado (1 colher de chá de sal iodado contém aproximadamente 40–240 μg de iodo, dependendo do país e da marca.) (61–63) Evite a ingestão excessiva de sal.


5) Ácidos graxos ômega-3
Escolha uma das seguintes opções ou uma combinação del a s todos os dias (19, 30, 64–69). Os seguintes valores são recomendações para homens que costumam comer mais calorias. Um pouco menos é suficiente para mulheres.

- ~10 nozes (20 metades, ~40 g) (Juglans regia) (64)
- 1–2 colheres de chá de óleo de linhaça (64)
- 2 colheres de sopa de linhaça moída (64, 70, 71)
- 1–2 colheres de sopa de sementes de chía (69, 72–74)
- 1–2 colheres de sopa de óleo de cânhamo (64)
- ¼ de xícara de sementes de cânhamo ou 1–2 colheres de sopa de sementes de cânhamo descascadas
- 2–3 colheres de sopa de óleo de canola (colza) (64)

Opcionalmente:
Divida em duas as quantidades recomendadas acima e use um suplemento de DHA.
- 200–300 mg de DHA a cada dois ou três dias (ou todos os dias, se preferir) (64, 67–69, 75–77)


6) Ferro
A solução mais simples para obter ferro suficiente é: legumes (26, 78, 79).

Conselhos adicionais:
- O consumo de vitamina C, juntamente com alimentos, aumenta a absorção de ferro de alimentos vegetais (78, 80-83).
- Beber café ou chá durante as refeições reduz a absorção de ferro (80–84).
- Cozinhar um molho ácido, como por exemplo, molho de tomate, em uma panela de ferro fundido aumenta a quantidade de ferro no molho (83–86).


7) Zinco
A solução mais simples para obter zinco suficiente é comer legumes, nozes e sementes (2, 30, 87, 88).


8) Selênio
Escolha (somente) uma das seguintes opções (45, 89–91):

- 1–2 castanhas-do-Pará (Bertholletia excelsa) (92–95)
- 50–60 μg por dia de um suplemento (selenomettionina) (92, 95–100)
Para veganos no Canadá, EUA e Venezuela os cereais e outros alimentos vegetais já fornecem muito selênio sem ter que comer castanhas-do-Pará (101–104).


9) Vitamina A
Inclua muitos vegetais de cor laranja, vegetais verdes e frutas de cor laranja em sua dieta (3, 45, 105).


10) Proteína
Inclua na sua dieta diária alimentos ricos em proteínas e ricos em aminoácido lisina. A recomendação para obter quantidades abundantes de proteína é quase a mesma que para ferro e zinco: comer legumes, cereais integrais, nozes e sementes (3, 106–108). Coma calorias suficientes.





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