Raccomandazioni per i vegani



1) Vitamina B12
Scegliere una delle seguenti opzioni (1–4):
- 2–5 µg due volte al giorno (da cibi arricchiti con vitamina B12 o un integratore) (5–12)
- 10–200 µg al giorno da un integratore (6,10–15)
- 2000–2500 µg a settimana da un integratore (7,11,12,16–18)


2) Calcio
Consiglio di assumere almeno 600 mg di calcio al giorno (2,19–28). Si può facilmente fare consumando una “porzione extra” di calcio di circa 300 mg al giorno aggiunto agli altri alimenti.

Raccomando di scegliere almeno una delle seguenti opzioni quotidiane. Sono ricche fonti vegane di calcio e con una biodisponibilità elevata che ne fornirà una “porzione extra”:
- 1 tazza di latte vegetale (come il latte di soia) arricchito con calcio (controlla l’etichetta se contiene 120 mg in 100 ml, come il latte di mucca) (3,23,28–31)  
- 300 mg di calcio da altri cibi arricchiti (ad esempio succo di frutta, avena, yogurt di soia) (23,28,30,32)
- 1 o 2 tazze di uno delle seguenti verdure (cotte):
- pak choi (Brassica rapa chinensis, con foglie scure)
- cavolo nero (Brassica oleracea acephala sabellica)
- cime di rapa/rapini/broccoletti (Brassica rapa rapa)
- broccoli (23,28,31)
- 2 o 3 tazze di cavolo cinese (Brassica rapa pekinensis)
- 1 tazza di tofu fatto cagliare con solfato di calcio (23,28–31)
- acqua minerale (o acqua del rubinetto), con un alto contenuto di calcio (testato) che fornisca almeno 300 mg di calcio al giorno (33,34)
- 6 fichi secchi (circa ½ tazza o 100 g) + 3 arance (23)


3) Vitamina D
In estate:
- 15–30 minuti di esposizione al sole ogni giorno oppure esposizione più lunga ripartita in diversi giorni alla settimana (senza crema solare, con il volto, le mani o una parte equivalente nuda) o
- un integratore (come in inverno)

In inverno (“inverno della vitamina D”):
- ~25 µg (~1000 UI) di vitamina D al giorno di un integratore (2,3,23,28,35–42), anche se questo non è strettamente necessario nel caso ci si esponga molto al sole durante l’estate e l’autunno, e se si viva in un luogo dove l’ “inverno della vitamina D” dura solo due o tre mesi.

L’ “inverno della vitamina D”:
- Tra 35° di latitudine nord (Nordafrica) e 35° di latitudine sud: nessuno o quasi inverno della vitamina D (43)
- Tra il 35° e il 40° di latitudine nord (Sicilia, Cosenza, Cagliari) o sud: dicembre e gennaio
- Tra il 40° e il 50° di latitudine nord (la maggior parte di Italia, Svizzera) o sud: novembre a febbraio
- Più di 50° di latitudine nord (Londra) o inferiore a 50° di latitudine sud: ottobre a marzo (o anche di più)


4) Iodio
Scegliere una delle seguenti opzioni (2,3,37,44–52):
- 100–200 µg al giorno da un integratore
- alghe come nori o wakame, più volte alla settimana
- sale iodato (1 cucchiaino di sale iodato contiene circa 40–240 µg di iodio, a seconda del paese e della marca.) (53–55)


5) Acidi grassi omega-3
Scegliere una delle seguenti opzioni o una combinazione tutti i giorni (19,30,56–61). Le seguenti quantità sono consigliate per gli uomini, i quali di solito consumano più calorie. Per le donne saranno sufficienti quantità leggermente minori.

- 10 noci (20 metà, ~40 g) (Juglans regia) (56)
- 1–2 cucchiaini di olio di lino (56) 
- 2 cucchiai di semi di lino macinati (56,62,63)
- 1–2 cucchiai di semi di chia (61,64–66)
- 1–2 cucchiai di olio di canapa (56)
- ¼ di tazza di semi di canapa o 1–2 cucchiai di semi di canapa pelati
- 2–3 cucchiai di olio di colza (56)

Opzionalmente:
Dimezzare le quantità consigliate sopra e utilizzare un integratore di DHA (docosahexaenoic acid).
- 200–300 mg di DHA ogni due o tre giorni (va bene anche ogni giorno) (56,59–61,67–69)


6) Ferro
Il metodo più semplice per ottenere abbastanza ferro è il consumo di legumi (26,70,71).

Ulteriori suggerimenti:
- L’assunzione di vitamina C insieme al cibo aumenta l’assorbimento del ferro da alimenti vegetali (70,72–75).
- Bere caffè o tè con i pasti ne impedisce invece l’assorbimento (72–76).
- Cucinare una salsa acida, come ad esempio la salsa di pomodoro, in una pentola di ghisa aumenta la quantità di ferro nella salsa stessa (75–78).


7) Zinco  
Il modo più semplice per assumere abbastanza zinco consiste nel consumare legumi, frutta secca a guscio e semi (2,30,79,80).


8) Selenio
Scegliere una delle seguenti opzioni (37,81–83):
- 1–2 noci del Brasile al giorno (84–87)
- 50–60 µg al giorno di un integratore (selenometionina) (84,87–92)
- Per i vegani che vivono in Canada, Stati Uniti d'America (Surai2006) e Venezuela i cereali e altri alimenti vegetali offrono molto selenio, senza dover mangiare noci del Brasile (93–96).


9) Vitamina A
Includere molte verdure di colore arancione o verde e frutta di colore arancione nella vostra dieta (3,37,97).


10) Proteine  
Includere nella dieta quotidiana alimenti ricchi di proteine e lisina. Ciò che viene raccomandato per assumere grandi quantità di proteine non diverge molto da ciò che si consiglia per ferro e zinco: mangiare legumi, cereali integrali, frutta secca a guscio e semi (3,98–100). Consumare abbastanza calorie.


Prossimamente su Amazon


 


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