Veganlar İçin Beslenme Önerileri (Turkish)


Aşağıdaki öneriler, beslenme tarzınıza yönelik genel bir kılavuz olma niteliğindedir. Önerilerdeki tüm ayrıntıları takip etmeniz şart değildir. 

B12 Vitamini:
Aşağıdakilerden birini seçiniz:
Günde iki kere 2 ila 5 mikrogram (katkılı gıda ya da takviye haplardan)
Günde 10 ila 200 mikrogram arası takviye haplardan 
Haftada 2000 ila 2500 mikrogram arası takviye haplardan

Kalsiyum:
Her gün kalsiyum açısından zengin besinler tüketin.
Her gün aşağıdaki seçeneklerden en az birini seçiniz:
Bir bardak kalsiyum katkılı bitki sütü (örneğin soya sütü; kutunun üstünde her 100 ml bitki sütunun en az 120 mg kalsiyum içerdiği yazmalıdır -aynı inek sütünde olduğu gibi)
Diğer kalsiyum katkılı yiyecekler (örneğin meyve suyu, soya yoğurdu, yulaf ezmesi, vs.)
Bu koyu yeşil yapraklı sebzelerden birinin 1 veya 2 su bardağı (200-400 g):
-Kara lahana (ingilizce: kale)
-Brokoli rabbe (ingilizce: broccoli raab)
-Şalgam yaprakları (ingilizce: turnip greens)
-Hardal yaprağı
-Brokoli
-Karahindiba yaprakları
-Isırganotu yaprakları
(Biyoayarlanımı düşük olduğu için ıspanak ve pazı iyi kalsiyum kaynakları değildir.)
~ 200 g tofu (kalsiyum ile yapılan)
Kalsiyum açısından zengin su (günde en az 300 mg kalsiyum sağlamalıdır)
~ 6 kuru incir (~ 100 g) + 3 portakal


Vitamin D:
Yaz aylarında:
15 ila 30 dakika arası öğlen güneşi. Gölgenizin kendi boyunuzdan daha uzun olmaması gerekiyor. Güneş yanığına dikkat!
Ya da:
Takviye hap – özellikle kış aylarında. Güneş ışığından tamamen kaçmayın.
Kış aylarında (“vitamin D kışı”):
Takviye haplardan her gün ~25 mikrogram (~1000 IU) vitamin D
“Vitamin D kışı” dünya üzerinde nerede yaşadığınıza bağlı olarak (enlem), vücudunuzun güneş ışığından vitamin D üretemediği süreci belirler.  
“Vitamin D kışı”:
35 derece kuzey ve 35 derece güney enlemleri arasında: “Vitamin D kışı” sizin probleminiz değil, bütün yıl boyunca teninizin aldığı güneş vitamin D üretiminize yeter. 
35 ve 45 derece arası (Türkiye), kuzey ya da güney küre: Aralık ve Ocak ayları
40 ve 50 derece arası, kuzey ya da güney küre: Kasım ve Şubat arası aylar
Kuzey kürede 50 derecenin kuzeyi ya da güney kürede 50 derecenin güneyi: Ekim ve Mart arası (ya da daha uzun süre)

İyot:
Aşağıdakilerden birini seçiniz:
Her gün 100 ila 200 mikrogram takviye haplardan
Haftada birkaç kez nori ve wakame gibi yosun türlerinden
İyotlu tuz (1 cay kasığı 40 ila 240 mikrogram arası iyot içermektedir- ürün etiketine bakiniz). Aşırı tuz alımına dikkat etmek gerekmektedir.

Omega-3 Yağ Asitleri:
Her gün aşağıdakilerden birini seçiniz. Aşağıdaki öneriler normalde çok daha fazla kalori tüketen erkekler için listelenmiştir. Kadınlar için çok daha azı yeterli olacaktır. 
10 ceviz (40 gram kadar)
1 ya da 2 cay kasığı keten tohumu yağı
2 yemek kasığı çekilmiş keten tohumu
1 ya da 2 yemek kasığı cihan tohumu
1 ya da 2 yemek kasığı kenevir tohumu yağı
Çeyrek kap kenevir tohumu – ya da 1 ila 2 yemek kasığı soyulmuş kenevir tohumu
2 ya da 3 yemek kasığı kolza tohumu yağı
Seçenek olarak (bunu bir vegana önermek için yeterince bulgu olmamasına rağmen):
Yukarıdaki önerilerin yarısını kullanınız- ve bir vegan DHA takviye hapı ekleyiniz:
Her iki-üç günde bir 200 ila 300 mikrogram DHA (eğer isterseniz her gün)

Demir:  
Baklagilleri tüketiniz.
Ek öneriler:
Demir zengini gıdaların yanında vitamin C alınması, bitki kökenli kaynaklardan alınan demirin emilimini güçlendirir. 
Yemeklerle birlikte içilen cay ya da kahve, demir emilimini azaltır. 
Demir tava ya da tencerelerin içinde domates sosu (ya da diğer asitli sosların) pişirilmesi, demir alımını arttırır.

Zink:  
Baklagiller, kuru yemiş ve çekirdekleri tüketiniz. 

Selenyum:
Aşağıdakilerden yalnızca birini seçiniz. 
1 ya da 2 Brezilya fındığı
Her gün 50 ila 60 mikrogram arası selenyum, takviye haplardan
Eğer Amerika, Kanada veya Venezuela’da yaşıyorsanız, bu önerileri göz ardı edebilirsiniz. Eğer Finlandiya’da yaşıyorsanız (gübreye ekstra selenyum konuluyor) ve organik olmayan tahılları sıklıkla tüketiyorsanız, yine bu önerileri önemsemeyebilirsiniz. Eğer Çin’in toprağı selenyum zengini bölgelerinden birinde yaşıyorsanız hem selenyum takviye hapı almayınız, hem de Brezilya fındığı tüketmeyiniz. Eğer Çin’in toprağı selenyum seviyesi çok düşük bölgelerinden birinde yaşıyorsanız, yukarıda önerildiği miktarda selenyum takviye hapı alabilirsiniz.

Vitamin A:
Koyu yeşil yapraklı sebzeleri, turuncu renkli meyve ve sebzeleri bol bol tüketiniz. 
Beta-karoten açısından zengin kaynaklar: Pismiş havuç, havuç suyu, bal kabağı, türüncu renkli tatlı patates, koyu yeşil yapraklı bütün sebzeler, mango ve papaya gibi turuncu renkli meyveler ve kırmızı dolmalık biber. 

Protein:   
Baklagiller, tam tahıllar, kuru yemiş ve çekirdek tüketiniz. Soya sütü, tofu, fasulye, bezelye, fıstık ezmesi, soya ununu, ya da sam fıstığını, ya da kenevir tohumunu, ya da kinoa, ya da horozibiğini her gün tüketiniz. Yeterince kalori aldığınıza emin olunuz. Eğer yeterince kalori almazsanız, vücudunuz proteini kalori kaynağı olarak kullanmaya baslar; bu da protein eksikliği çekmenize ve kas kaybetmenize sebep olabilir. 



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