Näringsrekommendationer för veganer (Swedish)

Märk väl att rekommendationerna är allmänna riktlinjer, och behöver inte följas till punkt och pricka.

1) Vitamin B12

Välj ett av följande alternativ (44, 77, 79, 90):

- 2–5 µg två gånger per dag (via berikade livsmedel eller som kosttillskott) (8, 9, 42, 53, 62, 33, 35)


-10–200 µg per dag i form av kosttillskott (1, 9, 10, 18, 33, 35)


- 2000–2500 µg per vecka i form av kosttillskott (6, 20, 35, 42, 61)



2) Kalcium
Man behöver ett kalciumintag på minst 600 mg per dag (2, 3, 22 25, 54, 59, 60, 70, 77, 82, 83).
Välj åtminstone ett av följande alternativ dagligen:

- 1 glas berikad växtmjölk (t.ex. sojamjölk). (Näringsförteckningen ska ange ett innehåll på 120 mg kalcium per 100 ml – vilket är lika mycket som i komjölk) (54, 57, 68, 83, 89)
- andra kalciumberikade produkter såsom juice, sojayoghurt, havreflingor, bröd (54, 68, 83)
- ~200–400 g tillagade mörkgröna bladgrönsaker, som olika typer av bladkål – grönkål, kruskål osv. – pak choi, broccoli, rovblast som i många länder äts traditionellt, maskrosblad, nässlor... (Inte spenat och mangold! Ät dem gärna. Men de är inte bra som kalciumkällor.)
- ~500 g rå eller tillagad kinakål
- ~200 g tofu som framställts med kalcium (54, 57, 68, 83, 89)
- "hårt", dvs. kalciumrikt vatten/mineralvatten, som bör tillföra minst 300 mg kalcium per dag – läs förteckningen (7, 87)
- ~6 (~100 g) torkade fikon + 3 apelsiner (54)



3) D-vitamin

Sommartid:
- 15–30 minuter i solen mitt på dagen, varje dag – eller mer sol mindre ofta. Se upp så att du inte bränner dig!

eller

- kosttillskott – gäller också hela vinterhalvåret.

Vintertid:
- ~25 µg (~1000 IU) D-vitamin dagligen i form av kosttillskott (38, 47, 54, 64, 66, 77, 78, 83, 85, 86)

"Vinter" betyder i termer av D-vitamin den period när kroppen inte kan tillverka vitaminet med hjälp av solljus. Hur länge denna vinter räcker eller om den alls infaller beror på vilka breddgrader man bor på.

- mellan 35° nord och 35° syd: Ingen D-vitaminvinter alls – kroppen kan tillverka D-vitamin året om när huden exponeras för solljus (43).
- mellan 35° och 40° nord ELLER syd: december–januari
- mellan 40° och 50° nord ELLER syd: november till februari
- nordligare än 50° nord ELLER söder om 50° syd: oktober till mars (eller längre)



4) Jod
Välj ett av följande alternativ (15, 24, 27, 46, 48, 49, 50, 45, 47, 69, 77, 79):

- 100–200 µg dagligen i form av kosttillskott 


- alger, t.ex. nori eller wakame, flera gånger i veckan 


- jodhaltigt salt (1 tesked innehåller 40–240 µg jod – kolla på förpackningen) (28, 71, 93)




5) Omega-3-fettsyror
Välj ett av följande alternativ (eller en kombination av dem) dagligen (2, 16, 19, 26, 34, 68, 72, 76). Följande rekommendationer gäller män – som generellt sett har ett högre kalorieintag. För kvinnor räcker det med något mindre.

- ~10 valnötter (=20 valnötshalvor; ~40 g)
- 1–2 tsk linfröolja
- 2 msk krossade linfrön (16, 17, 32)
- 2–3 matskedar ryps- eller rapsolja
- 1–2 msk chiafrön (23, 58, 76, 84)
- 1–2 msk hampfröolja
- ca 0,5 dl hampafrön, or 1–2 matskedar skalade hampafrön


Alternativt (det finns dock inte mycket empiriskt underlag för att rekommendera detta åt 
veganer):
Halvera ovanstående mängder, och lägg till ett DHA-kosttillskott:
- 200–300 mg DHA varannan eller var tredje dag (13, 16, 29, 34, 72, 73, 74, 76)




6) Järn

Ät baljväxter (31, 70, 88).

Andra tips:
- Genom att få i sig C-vitamin i samband med en järnrik måltid ökar upptaget av järnet i vegetabilier (14, 30, 40, 41, 68, 88).
- Dricker man kaffe eller te i samband med måltider minskar järnupptaget (14, 30, 39, 40, 41).
- Tillagar man tomatsås (eller andra såser som är något syrliga) i gjutjärnskärl ökar järninnehållet i såsen (39, 40, 67, 73).



7) Zink
Ät baljväxter, nötter och frön (4, 68, 75, 77).




8) Selen
Välj (enbart) ett av följande alternativ (36, 37, 47, 51):

- 1–2 paranötter dagligen (11, 12, 21, 56, 81)

- 50–60 µg selen i form av kosttillskott dagligen (selenmetionin) (5, 21, 63, 80, 81, 91, 92)


I Finland används selenberikat gödsel. I snitt får finländska veganer därför i sig mer selen än veganer i övriga Europa och generellt får de finländska veganerna i sig tillräckligt med selen. Så veganer i Finland som regelbundet äter spannmålsprodukter (från konventionell, dvs icke-ekologisk, produktion) behöver inte bekymra sig om selenrekommendationerna. (24)



9) A-vitamin (provitamin A i vegetabilier)
Ät mycket mörkgröna grönsaker och orangea frukter och grönsaker (45, 65).
Utmärkta källor är t.ex. kokta eller stekta morötter, morotsjuice, pumpa, orange sötpotatis och mörkgröna bladgrönsaker.



10) Protein
Ät baljväxter, fullkornsprodukter, nötter och frön, särskilt baljväxter (52, 55).



[translated by the fabulous Barbro Nordling]



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