Vitamin B12 recommendations for vegans - in the six languages of the United Nations


Arabic 
اختار واحد من الاختيارات التالية (11, 15, 16, 17)
 
- 2-5 ميكروجرام مرتين في اليوم من (المدعمات الغذائية أو المكملات الغذائية) (3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14)

- 10-200 ميكروجرام في اليوم من (المكملات الغذائية) (1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9)

- 2000-2500 ميكروجرام في الأسبوع  من (المكملات الغذائية) (2, 7, 9, 10, 13)

Chinese (simplified) 

素食主义者维生素B12建议,
选择以下之一 (11, 151617)

- 2-5 µg, 每天两次(来自强化食品或补充剂)(34, 891012, 14)
- 每天10-100 µg (来自补充剂)(1, 4, 5689)
- 每周2000-2500 µg(来自补充剂)(2791013)





English 

Vitamin B12 recommendations for vegans 
Choose one of the following options (11, 151617):
   
- 2–5 µg twice per day (from fortified foods or a supplement) (34, 891012, 14)
- 10–200 µg per day from a supplement (1, 4, 5689)
- 2000–2500 µg per week from a supplement (2791013)




French

Recommandations de vitamine B12 pour les végans (végétaliens)
Choisissez l'une des options suivantes
(11, 151617):

- 2-5
μg deux fois par jour (à partir d'aliments enrichis ou d'un supplément)
(34, 891012, 14) 
- 10-200 μg par jour (supplément) (1, 4, 5689) 
- 2000-2500 μg par semaine (supplément) (2791013)




Russian

Рекоммендации потребления витамина В12 для веганов.
Выберите один из следующих вариантов (11, 151617):

- 2-5 мкг в день (при потреблении обогащённых продуктов питания или пищевых добавок) (34, 891012, 14);
- 10-20 мкг в день при потреблении пищевых добавок (витаминов) (1, 4, 5689);
- 2000-2500 мкг в неделю при потреблении пищевых добавок (витаминов) (2791013).


 
Spanish

Recomendaciones de vitamina B12 para veganos
Elige una de las siguientes opciones (11, 151617):   

- 2–5 µg dos veces al día (de alimentos enriquecidos con vitamina B12 o de un suplemento) (34, 891012, 14)
- 10–200 µg al día de un suplemento (1, 4, 5689)
- 2000–2500 µg cada semana de un suplemento (2791013)



References
  1. Adams JF, Ross SK, Mervyn L, Boddy K, King P: Absorption of cyanocobalamin, coenzyme B12, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin at different dose levels. Scand J Gastroenterol 6: 249–252 (1971)
  2. Berlin H, Berlin R, Brante G: Oral treatment of pernicious anemia with high doses of vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor. Acta Med Scand 184: 247–258 (1968)
  3. Bor MV, von Castel-Roberts KM, Kauwell GPA, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Maneval DR, Bailey LB, Nexo E: Daily intake of 4 to 7 µg dietary vitamin B-12 is associated with steady concentrations of vitamin B-12-related biomarkers in a healthy young population. Am J Clin Nutr 91: 571–577 (2010)
  4. Carmel R: Cobalamin (Vitamin B12). In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ (eds): Modern nutrition in health and disease. 10th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 482–497 (2006)
  5. Carmel R: Mandatory fortification of the food supply with cobalamin: an idea whose time has not yet come. J Inherit Metab Dis 34: 67–73 (2011)
  6. Deshmukh US, Joglekar CV, Lubree HG, Ramdas LV, Bhat DS, Naik SS, Hardikar PS, Raut DA, Konde TB, Wills AK, Jackson AA, Refsum H, Nanivadekar AS, Fall CH, Yajnik CS: Effect of physiological doses of oral vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine – a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in India. Eur J Clin Nutr 64: 495–502 (2010)
  7. Donaldson MS: Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Ann Nutr Metab 44: 229–234 (2000)
  8. Haddad EH, Berk LS, Kettering, Hubbard RW, Peters WR: Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr 70 (Suppl): 586S–593S (1999)
  9. Heyssel RM, Bozian RC, Darby WJ, Bell MC: Vitamin B12 turnover in man. The assimulation of vitamin B12 from natural foodstuff by man and estimates of minimal daily dietary requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 18: 176–184 (1966)
  10. IOM (Institute of Medicine), Food and Nutrition Board: Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press (1998)
  11. Johnsen JB, Fønnebø V: [Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency]. [Article in Norwegian] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 111: 62–64 (1991) (Abstract)
  12. Luhby AL, Cooperman JM, Donnenfeld AM, Herrero JM, Teller DN, Wenig JB: Observations on transfer of vitamin B12 from mother to fetus and newborn. Am J Dis Child 96: 532–533 (1958)
  13. Norberg B: Turn of tide for oral vitamin B12 treatment. J Intern Med 246: 237–238 (1999)
  14. Norris J: How recommendations were formulated. Last updated: August 2013. http://www.veganhealth.org/b12/formula (9 Nov 2015)
  15. Schüpbach R, Wegmüller R, Berguerand C, Bui M, Herter‑Aeberli I: Micronutrient status and intake in omnivores, vegetarians and vegans in Switzerland. Eur J Nutr Oct 26. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1079-7 [Epub ahead of print] (2015)
  16. Sobiecki JG, Appleby PN, Bradbury KE, Key TJ: High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study. Nutr Res 36: 464–477 (2016)
  17. Woo KS, Kwok TCY, Celermajer DS: Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health. Nutrients 6: 3259–3273 (2014)

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